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New extinct penguin taxa (1 Viewer)

Fred Ruhe

Well-known member
Netherlands
Theresa L. Cole, Daniel T. Ksepka, Kieren J. Mitchell, Alan J. D. Tennyson, Daniel B. Thomas, Hailin Pan, Guojie Zhang, Nicolas J. Rawlence, Jamie R. Wood, Pere Bover, Juan L. Bouzat, Alan Cooper, Steven Fiddaman, Tom Hart, Gary Miller, Peter G. Ryan, Lara D. Shepherd, Janet M. Wilmshurst & Jonathan M. Waters, 2019

Mitogenomes uncover extinct penguin taxa and reveal island formation as a key driver of speciation

Molecular Biology and Evolution. in press. doi:10.1093/molbev/msz017

Abstract: https://academic.oup.com/mbe/advanc...molbev/msz017/5303836?redirectedFrom=fulltext

The emergence of islands has been linked to spectacular radiations of diverse organisms. Although penguins spend much of their lives at sea, they rely on land for nesting, and a high proportion of extant species are endemic to geologically-young islands. Islands may thus have been crucial to the evolutionary diversification of penguins. We test this hypothesis using a fossil-calibrated phylogeny of mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) from all extant and recently extinct penguin taxa. Our temporal analysis demonstrates that numerous recent island-endemic penguin taxa diverged following the formation of their islands during the Plio-Pleistocene, including the Galápagos (Galápagos Islands), northern rockhopper (Gough Island), erect-crested (Antipodes Islands), Snares crested (Snares) and royal (Macquarie Island) penguins. Our analysis also reveals two new recently extinct island-endemic penguin taxa from New Zealand’s Chatham Islands: Eudyptes warhami sp. nov. and a dwarf subspecies of the yellow-eyed penguin, Megadyptes antipodes richdalei ssp. nov. Eudyptes warhami diverged from the Antipodes Islands erect-crested penguin between 1.1 million years ago (Ma) and 2.5 Ma, shortly after the emergence of the Chatham Islands (∼3 Ma). This new finding of recently-evolved taxa on this young archipelago provides further evidence that the radiation of penguins over the last 5 Ma has been linked to island emergence. Mitogenomic analyses of all penguin species, and the discovery of two new extinct penguin taxa, highlight the importance of island formation in the diversification of penguins, as well as the extent to which anthropogenic extinctions have affected island-endemic taxa across the Southern Hemisphere’s isolated archipelagos.

Enjoy,

Fred
 

Melanie

Well-known member
Great that they have finally described Eudyptes warhami.

Here is an older article that refers to this species

BIRD EXTINCTIONS AND FOSSIL BONES FROM MANGERE ISLAND, CHATHAM ISLANDS By A.J.D. Tennyson and P.R. Millener Notornis 41 Supplement, 165-178 (1994)

https://www.notornis.osnz.org.nz/bird-extinctions-and-fossil-bones-mangere-island-chatham-islands

Fossil bones of crested penguins from the Chathams have been referred
to Erect-crested Penguin Eudyptes sclateri (e.g., Sutton 1979) or Fiordland
Crested Penguin E. pachyrhynchus (e.g., Scarlett 1982), but the bones do
not fit either of these skies. Travers & Travers (1872) held a crested penguin
from the Chathams in captivity for several weeks between 1867 and 1872.
They referred to it as E. pachyrhynchus but as all crested penguins in New
Zealand were referred to by that name at the time, it is possible they would
not have recognised a different species. If this specimen survives it should
be re-examined.
 

Fred Ruhe

Well-known member
Netherlands
Great that they have finally described Eudyptes warhami.

Here is an older article that refers to this species

BIRD EXTINCTIONS AND FOSSIL BONES FROM MANGERE ISLAND, CHATHAM ISLANDS By A.J.D. Tennyson and P.R. Millener Notornis 41 Supplement, 165-178 (1994)

https://www.notornis.osnz.org.nz/bird-extinctions-and-fossil-bones-mangere-island-chatham-islands

Another paper mentioning this new penguin is:

Philip R. Millener, 1999

The History of the Chatham Islands’ Bird Fauna of the Last 7000 Years - A Chronicle of Change and Extinction

in: Avian Paleontology at the Close of the 20th Century: Proceedings of the 4th International Meeting of the Society of Avian Paleontology and Evolution, Washington, D.C., 4-7 June 1996
Storrs Lovejoy Olson editor
Peter Wellnhofer, Cécile Mourer-Chauviré, David William Steadman, and Larry Dean Martin Associate Editors
Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology 89: 85-109

Fred
 

Fred Ruhe

Well-known member
Netherlands
Systematic palaeontology:

Aves Linnaeus, 1758
Sphenisciformes Sharpe, 1891
Eudyptes Vieillot, 1816
Eudyptes warhami, n. sp. Cole, Tennyson, Ksepka & Thomas

Holotype. NMNZ S.33007. Skull

Etymology. The specific epithet honours John Warham (1919–2010), who carried out pioneering studies on Eudyptes penguins.

Type locality. Foredune c.200 m west of Tahatika Creek, Chatham Island. Collected by P.R. Millener, 20 Jan 1993. Age: <7000 years BP; the maximum age of the dunes. An Anas chathamica bone from the site dates to 1529 ± 57 14C years BP (1405–1185 cal BP) (Millener 1999).

Paratype and Stratigraphic context. All bones in the type series are from Chatham Island unless otherwise stated: NMNZ S.24277, left carpometacarpus; NMNZ S.25157, right humerus; NMNZ S.26908, skull; NMNZ S.27259, right coracoid, Chatham Islands; NMNZ S.47917, left coracoid; NMNZ S.30440, mandible; NMNZ S.47921, left tibiotarsus, Mangere Island; CM Av.6816, largely complete skull, Chatham Islands; CM Av.27407, left humerus; CM Av.27867, left humerus (Fig. S10). Most bones in the type series were isolated elements collected from eroded dune surfaces. However, the paratype from Mangere Island was from a soil deposit that contained European-era remains (but had possible rabbit disturbance). No E. warhami bones were found in articulated association.

Distribution. Presumably once widespread along coastlines of the Chatham archipelago. The type series includes specimens from northern Chatham Is. (43.71°S) to Mangere Is. (44.27°S). The referred specimen series (see Supplementary Information) indicates that the species ranged westward to the east coast of mainland New Zealand.


Megadyptes Milne-Edwards, 1880
Megadyptes antipodes (Hombron & Jacquinot, 1841)
Megadyptes antipodes richdalei n. ssp., Tennyson & Cole

Holotype. NMNZ S.26921. Partial skeleton

Etymology. The subspecies epithet honours Lance Richdale (1900–1983), who carried out pioneering studies on Megadyptes ecology.

Type locality. Foredune east of Maunganui, Chatham Is. Collected by P.R. Millener, 21 Feb 1989. Age: <7000 years BP; the maximum age of the dunes. A Diaphorapteryx hawkinsi bone from the site dates to 1860 ± 150 14C years BP (1996–1314 cal BP) (Millener 1999).

Paratype and Stratigraphic context. All bones in the type series were collected from eroded dune surfaces and were from the Chatham archipelago unless otherwise stated: NMNZ S.47918 right coracoid; NMNZ S.30968, mandible; NMNZ S.47765, premaxilla; NMNZ S.45876, skull Chatham Islands (Fig. 2 ); CM Av11287, left humerus; CM (ACAD12997; unregistered) (Fig. S12), left humerus; AM LB12063, proximal left tibiotarsus, Pitt Island.

Distribution. Chatham and Pitt Islands (from 43.73°S to 44.23°S). Presumably occurred around all coasts of the Chatham archipelago.

Fred

Skulls of (a) Megadyptes antipodes antipodes: NMNZ OR.24638; (b) Megadyptes antipodes richdalei paratype: NMNZ S.45876 (AD88); (c) Eudyptes warhami holotype: NMNZ S.33007 (AD161) in (c1) dorsal view and (c2) left lateral view (jugal bar is disarticulated); (d) Megadyptes antipodes richdalei holotype: NMNZ S.26921 (AD95); (d1) mandible in ventral view, (d2) right and (d3) left coracoid in ventral view, (d4) sternum in ventral view, (d5) left and (d6) right side of pelvis in medial view, (d7) right and (d8) left femur in cranial view, (d9) right and (d10) tibiotarsus in cranial view, (d11) right tarsometatarsus in cranial view, (d12) left and (d13) right humerus in caudal view, (d14) left and (d15) right radius in dorsal view, (d16) left and (d17) right ulna in dorsal view, (d18) left and (d19) right carpometacarpus in dorsal view. Photos: Jean-Claude Stahl, Te Papa.
 

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ZEISS. Discover the fascinating world of birds, and win a birding trip to Columbia
ZEISS. Discover the fascinating world of birds, and win a birding trip to Columbia
ZEISS. Discover the fascinating world of birds, and win a birding trip to Columbia
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