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Parrots (1 Viewer)


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The problem is that I base on his work to make the subfamily divisions in my classification of birds and I don't know if the names I'm using are available or not 🤨🙄
I'm no expert in this but surely there needs to be a comprehensive list of names and sources somewhere, to help 'winnow out the wheat from the chaff'.


Well-known member
Isn't the problem that Bock set out to create such a comprensive list of names but ended up adding to the chaff?
Interesting read! I've just downloaded a copy.

Beyond the issues with Wolters post 1960, are there any other major issues a novice like myself needs to be aware of?
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Well-known member
Martini, D., N. Dussex, B.C. Robertson, N.J. Gemmell, and M. Knapp (2021)
Evolution of the world’s only alpine parrot – genomic adaptation or phenotypic plasticity, behaviour and ecology?
Molecular Ecology (advance online publication)
doi: 10.1111/mec.15978

Climate warming, in particular in island environments, where opportunities for species to disperse are limited, may become a serious threat to cold adapted alpine species. In order to understand how alpine species may respond to a warming world, we need to understand the drivers that have shaped their habitat specialisation and the evolutionary adaptations that allow them to utilize alpine habitats.

The endemic, endangered New Zealand kea (Nestor notabilis) is considered the only alpine parrot in the world. As a species commonly found in the alpine zone it may be highly susceptible to climate warming. But is it a true alpine specialist? Is its evolution driven by adaptation to the alpine zone or is the kea an open habitat generalist that simply uses the alpine zone to – for example – avoid lower lying anthropogenic landscapes? We use whole genome data of the kea and its close, forest adapted sister species, the kākā (N. meridionalis) to reconstruct the evolutionary history of both species and identify the functional genomic differences that underlie their habitat specialisations.

Our analyses do not identify major functional genomic differences between kea and kākā in pathways associated with high-altitude. Rather, we find evidence that selective pressures on adaptations commonly found in alpine species are present in both Nestor species, suggesting that selection for alpine adaptations has not driven their divergence. Strongly divergent demographic responses to past climate warming between the species nevertheless highlight potential future threats to kea survival in a warming world.

Peter Kovalik

Well-known member
Dominique L. Hellmich, Andre B. S. Saidenberg, and Timothy F. Wright. 2021. Genetic, but not behavioral, evidence supports the distinctiveness of the Mealy Amazon Parrot in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Diversity. published 17 June.
https://doi.org/10.3390/d13060273, open access

The presence of unidentified cryptic species within a species complex can obscure demographic trends of vulnerable species, impacting potential species conservation and management decisions. Previous work identified a taxonomic split between Central and South American populations of the mealy amazon (Amazona farinosa) that subsequently resulted in the elevation of these two populations to full species status (Amazona guatemalae and A. farinosa, respectively). In that study, however, a third, geographically disjunct population from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest was insufficiently sampled, limiting the ability of researchers to fully evaluate its genetic distinctiveness. Given that significant levels of biodiversity and endemism are found in this region, we aimed to use genetic and behavioral data to determine if the Atlantic Forest population of A. f. farinosa represents a third cryptic species within the complex. We sequenced 6 genes (4 mitochondrial and 2 nuclear introns) from the Atlantic Forest population of A. f. farinosa to measure the genetic relationships between this population and all other recognized species and subspecies of the mealy amazon. In addition, we use spectrographic cross-correlation and an analysis of 29 acoustic parameters to determine whether the taxa diverge in their learned contact call structure and if the degree of vocal differentiation correlates to genetic structure. We found that the Atlantic Forest population of A. f. farinosa was genetically distinct from that of the greater Amazon basin, but the degree of differentiation was less than that separating the Central and South American taxa. Acoustic analysis revealed substantial variation in contact call structure within each clade. This variation created substantial overlap in acoustic space between the clades. In all, the degree of call divergence between clades did not correspond to the degree of genetic divergence between the same clades. The results suggest that in taxa with substantial geographic variation in learned calls, such as the mealy amazon, vocalizations may not be a useful tool in the identification of cryptic species that are lifelong vocal learners. While these results do not support the elevation of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest population of the mealy amazon to full species status, given current trends of habitat loss in the Atlantic Forest as well as the imperiled status of large parrot species globally, we argue that this population nonetheless warrants special conservation and management consideration as a pool of unique genetic diversity within the southern mealy amazon species.


Well-known member
Dussex, N., T. van der Valk, H.E. Morales, C.W. Wheat, D. Díez-del-Molino, J. von Seth, Y. Foster, V.E. Kutschera, K. Guschanski, A. Rhie, A.M. Phillippy, J. Korlach, K. Howe, W. Chow, S. Pelan, J.D.M. Damas, H.A. Lewin, A.R. Hastie, G. Formenti, O. Fedrigo, J. Guhlin, T.W.R. Harrop, M.F. Le Lec, P.K. Dearden, L. Haggerty, F.J. Martin, V. Kodali, F. Thibaud-Nissen, D. Iorns, M. Knapp, N.J. Gemmell, F. Robertson, R. Moorhouse, A. Digby, D. Eason, D. Vercoe, J. Howard, E.D. Jarvis, B.C. Robertson, and L. Dalén (2021)
Population genomics of the critically endangered kākāpō
Cell Genomics (advance online publication)
doi: 10.1016/j.xgen.2021.100002

The kākāpō is a flightless parrot endemic to New Zealand. Once common in the archipelago, only 201 individuals remain today, most of them descending from an isolated island population. We report the first genome-wide analyses of the species, including a high-quality genome assembly for kākāpō, one of the first chromosome-level reference genomes sequenced by the Vertebrate Genomes Project (VGP). We also sequenced and analyzed 35 modern genomes from the sole surviving island population and 14 genomes from the extinct mainland population. While theory suggests that such a small population is likely to have accumulated deleterious mutations through genetic drift, our analyses on the impact of the long-term small population size in kākāpō indicate that present-day island kākāpō have a reduced number of harmful mutations compared to mainland individuals. We hypothesize that this reduced mutational load is due to the island population having been subjected to a combination of genetic drift and purging of deleterious mutations, through increased inbreeding and purifying selection, since its isolation from the mainland ∼10,000 years ago. Our results provide evidence that small populations can survive even when isolated for hundreds of generations. This work provides key insights into kākāpō breeding and recovery and more generally into the application of genetic tools in conservation efforts for endangered species.

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