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Pliogallus csarnotanus n. sp. (1 Viewer)

Fred Ruhe

Well-known member
Netherlands
Jenő (Eugen) Kessler & Ida Horváth, 2022

Presentation of so far undetermined bird remains from the Pliocene of Beremend 26 and Csarnóta 2 and 4 (Baranya county, South Hungary)

Ornis Hungarica 2022. 30(1): 47–68
DOI: 10.2478/orhu-2022-0004

Abstract and free pdf: https://www.researchgate.net/profil...y-South-Hungary.pdf?origin=publication_detail

The authors have defined at the order, subfamily, family or genus level the very fragmentary and small-size bird bone material from the three Pliocene-age sites in southern Hungary (Beremend 26, Csarnóta 2 and 4), which is in the collection of the Museum of the Hungarian Institute of Geology and Geophysics. The non-catalogued bone fragments remaining from the already examined material were identified. The number of taxa identified is 26, of which one species is new to science. The new species (Pliogallus csarnotanus n. sp.) belongs to a hitherto disputed genus, which is thus recognised through the newly defined material. Of the rest of the material, only Paleocryptonix hungaricus Jánossy, 1991 and Glaucidium bnaranensis Kessler, 2010 have been identified to species level, the Gallinula, Porzana, Merops, Garrulus, Nucifraga finds to genus level, while the other 18 taxa have been identified only to subfamily or family level (Perdicinae, Columbidae, Alaudidae, Hirundinidae, Panuridae, Paridae, Sittidae, Certhiidae, Muscicapidae, Turdidae, Sylviidae, Motacillidae, Prunellidae, Laniidae, Sturnidae and Fringillidae), or only to order level (Charadriiformes, Coraciiformes).

Enjoy,

Fred
 
Last edited:

Fred Ruhe

Well-known member
Netherlands
Systematic paleontology

Order Galliformes (Temminck, 1820)
Family Phasianidae (Vigors, 1825)
Pliogallus Gaillard, 1939
Pliogallus csarnotanus n. sp. (Figure 1/1–4, 2/5–6)

Locus typicus and stratum typicum: Csarnóta 4 (Hungary), Pliocene (MN15)

Material: carpometacarpus (holotype), 4 phalanga pedis, 2 phalanx ungualis (paratypes).

Dimensions (in mm): carpometacarpus: A-33.47; B-29.88; C-11.51; D-7.15; E-9.63; E1-3.99; F-6.81; G-3.72; phalanga pedis (4): A-7.78, 14, 18; phalanx ungualis (2): A-10.61 and 12.03.

Derivatio nominis: „csarnotanus” from the name of locality.

Diagnosis of species: A big Phasianidae species, bigger than Gallus beremendensis identified by D. Jánossy in 1997 from the Early Pleistocene of Beremend 5. The metacarpus differs from the recens Gallus gallus domesticus in the following:
– the proximal edge of the trochlea carpalis less outstanding;
– the processus extensorius is narrowed and the end is curved upwards
– the processus pisiformis is more prominent;
– the spatium intermetacarpalis is narrower;
– the protruding end of os metacarpale majus is longer.

Description: robust skeletal part of the same size as the extant Domestic Hen (Gallus gallus domesticus L. 1758), differing in a few morphological features. This is presumably related to its better flight abilities. The character of the claw bone indicates clinging to wood.

Remark: The genus was established in 1939 by C. Gaillard on the basis of two tarsometatarsus from Csarnóta, Hungary, describing the species as Pliogallus crassipes and P. kormosi. In 1975, D. Jánossy examined the material in the collection of the University of Lyon and concluded that the bones of extant hen tarsometatarsus were treated with chemicals (Jánossy 1976b, Mlíkovskỳ 2002). In the early 2000s, L. Pongrácz re-excavated Csarnóta 4 and found some bird bones, which he gave to J. Kessler for identification. Among them were a carpometacarpus and some foot toes and claw bones. They show typical chicken characteristics, both morphologically and in size. They are yellowish brown in colour, which is quite typical of the fossil remains of the site. We do not take a position on Jánossy’s opinion of the original material but accept the genus name with the new species name. The genus is not known from sites in Europe outside the Carpathian Basin

Fred


Figure 1. 1. Pliogallus csarnotanus n. sp. – Csarnóta 4 carpometacarpus (left side, ventral aspect); 2. Pliogallus csarnotanus n. sp. – Csarnóta 4. carpometacarpus (left side, dorsal aspect); 3. Gallus gallus domesticus (L. 1758) extant (left side, ventral aspect); 4. Gallus gallus domesticus (L. 1758) extant (left side, dorsal aspect); a – proximal edge of the trochlea carpalis; b – the end of the processus extensorius; c – the form of processus pisiformis; d – the form of spatium intermetacarpalis; e – the protruding end of os metacarpale majus.
 

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Fred Ruhe

Well-known member
Netherlands
Palaeocryptonix (Depéret, 1892)
Palaeocryptonix hungaricus Jánossy, 1991 (syn: Eurobambusicola turolicus Zelenkov, 2016)

Site and era: Beremend 26 (Hungary). Pliocene (MN15)

Material: damaged coracoideum, distal fragment of tibiotarsus (Beremend 26)

Dimensions (in mm): coracoideum: B-ab. 23.50, C-5.11, E-2.89; tibiotarsus: E-2.37, F-5.13, G-5.41.

A species of larger quail-sized hen, quite common in the Late Miocene and Early Pliocene sites of the Carpathian Basin. The only almost complete skeleton in Hungary was also provided by this species in the Upper Miocene from Northern Hungary (Rátka, in the Encsi private museum from Tállya). Mlíkovskỳ assigns the genus and the species to Alectoris donnezani (Depéret, 1892), while in 2016, N. Zelenkov establishes a new genus and species Eurobambusicola turolicus based on material in the collection of the Museum of the HIGG. For our part, both attempts are met with scepticism (Jánossy 1991, Mlíkovskỳ 2002, Kessler 2009b, 2013a, Zelenkov 2016).

Subfamily Perdicinae (Horsfield, 1821)
Perdicinae gen. et sp. indet. (Figure 2/4)
Site and era: Csarnóta 2 (Hungary), Pliocene (MN15)
Material: proximal fragment of coracoideum
Dimension (in mm): C-ab. 3.10
Description: the very fragmentary coracoidum remains undoubtedly belong to the Phasianidae family, but nothing more can be determined. It is probably from a quail-sized species.

Fred
 

Fred Ruhe

Well-known member
Netherlands
Rallidae (Vigors, 1825)
Gallinula (Brisson, 1860)
Gallinula sp.

Site and era:
Csarnóta 2 (Hungary), Pliocene (MN15)

Material: distal fragment of carpometacarpus

Dimensions (in mm): E-4.69, E1-2.64, F-3.60, G-3.16

The fragmentary material does not allow a species identification, as only one fossil species from the European Neogene is known in the literature: the species Gallinula balcanica Boev, 1999 from the Late Pliocene of Bulgaria (Varshets, MN17), identified from an ulna (Boev 1999, Mlíkovskỳ 2002). The presence of the genus in Csarnóta is of considerable value.

Porzana (Vieillot, 1826)
Porzana sp.

Site and era:
Csarnóta 2 (Hungary), Pliocene (MN15)

Material: proximal fragment of humerus

Dimension (in mm): C-5.53

Its features suggest the crakes, and its size the smaller species of the genus. Crakes are very rarely found in the European Neogene. Three of the oldest species are known from the Middle and the Late Miocene and the Early Pliocene in Hungary: Porzana matraensis Kessler, 2009; P. kretzoii Kessler, 2009; P. estramosi Jánossy, 1979 (from Mátraszőlős, Polgárdi and Osztramos). From European sites outside the Carpathian Basin, species of the genus have been reported only from the Late Pliocene – Early Pleistocene sites in Spain (Mallorca), Bulgaria (Varshets) and Czech Republic (Stránská skála) (Jánossy 1979b, Mlíkovskỳ 2002, Kessler 2009b).

Order Charadriiformes (Huxley, 1867)
Charadriiformes fam, gen. et sp. indet.

Site and era:
Csarnóta 2 (Hungary), Pliocene (MN15)

Material: proximal fragment of humerus

Dimension (in mm): C-6.20

A remain from a small species (CharadriusCalidris size), which is compatible with the order but not suitable for a closer taxonomic classification because of its worn markings. Representatives of this order are not very common in the European Neogene. From the Carpathian Basin, Gallinago veterior Jánossy, 1979 (Polgárdi, MN13; Csarnóta 2, MN15); Tringa sp. (Polgárdi, MN13; Beremend 26, MN15); Scolopax baranensis Jánossy, 1979 (Csarnóta 2, MN15); Charadrius lambrechti Kessler, 2009 (Polgárdi, MN13); Calidris janossyi Kessler, 2009 (Polgárdi, MN13); Chlidonias sp. (Beremend 26, MN15) are known (Jánossy 1979a, Mlíkovskỳ 2002, Kessler 2009b). As the humerus is not included in the listed finds, no comparison is possible.

Fred
 

Fred Ruhe

Well-known member
Netherlands
Order Columbiformes (Latham, 1790)
Family Columbidae (Illiger, 1811)
Columbidae sp. indet.

Site and era:
Csarnóta 2 (Hungary), Pliocene (MN15)

Material: distal fragment of humerus

Dimensions (in mm): F-6.67; G-4.37

A remain from a small (dove-sized) species of the family. The pigeons are known only at the level of the recurrent genus from the Neogene of Europe: Columba sp. from Bulgaria (Varshets, M17) and from Croatia (Sandalja, MN17) (Mlíkovskỳ 2002). From the Carpathian Basin, it has been identified to the family level from the Middle Miocene of Mátraszőlős 2 (MN7–8) on the basis of a distal fragment of a tibiotarsus (Kessler & Hír 2012a).

Order Strigiformes (Wagler, 1830)
Family Strigidae (Vigors, 1825)
Glaucidium (Boie, 1826)
Glaucidium baranensis Kessler, 2010

Site and era: Csarnóta 2 (Hungary), Pliocene (MN15)

Material: 3 phalanx ungualis

Dimensions (in mm): A- 6.65, 7.99 and 9.52; C-3.35, 3.50 and 4.35

A species of owl that largely matches the size and character of the extant European Pygmy Owl, which may have been the ancestor of the extant species in Europe and thus, in the Carpathian Basin. From the Early Pliocene of Csarnóta 2 and Beremend 26, the distal end of a humerus, the sternal fragment of a coracoideum (Csarnóta 2, MN15) and the proximal
half of a humerus (Beremend 26, MN15) have been described (Kessler 2010). Considering that the claw bones are from a small owl, it is reasonable to assume that they are the remains of fossil Pygmy Owls (Glaucidium passerinum (L.1758)) described from the same site.
Jánossy (1974) reports another find of Glaucidium sp. from the Late Pliocene of Poland (Rebielice, MN16), otherwise only the extant species is known in fossil material from the Early Pleistocene onwards. The genus is known from only one Late Pliocene site in Florida (USA) (Inglis, Cytrus County, Florida) with one described species: G. explorator Emslie, 1998, with numerous skeletal parts but only a fragmentary proximal humerus, corresponding to the size of the extant G. brasilianum. A tibiotarsus is also reported from the same material, with dimensions similar to those of extant G. minutissimum but defined only to genus level. An extinct species described from the Pleistocene of the Bahamas as G. dickinsoni Brodkorb,
1959, by a tibiotarsus, was subsequently (Olson 1985) synonymised with the extant species Speotyto cunicularia (Molina, 1782). The ancestor of the Pygmy Owl was already present in the Eocene. It has been described from the Middle Eocene of Germany (Geiseltal and Messel) from several humerus specimens under the name Eoglaucidium pallas Fischer, 1987 (Fischer 1987, Mlíkovskỳ 2002).

Order Coraciiformes (Forbes, 1884)
Family Meropidae (Vigors, 1825)
Merops (Linnaeus, 1758)
Merops sp.

Site and era:
Csarnóta 2 (Hungary), Pliocene (MN15)

Material: proximal fragment of humerus

Dimensions (in mm): C-5.55; E-1.64

The genus is not known from the Tertiary period of Europe. From the Carpathian Basin, it is known only in the Middle Miocene of Croatia (Radoboj, MN7) (von Meyer 1865, Mlíkovskỳ 1997); in the Late Miocene of Hungary (Rudabánya, MN9) (Kessler 2010a) and in the Early Pleistocene of Romania (Betfia 9) (Gál 2002). In addition, it is known from Europe only from the Late Pleistocene of France (Combe Grenal, Salpétre a Pompignan,
Q4/I) (Mourer-Chauviré 1975, Tyrberg 1998).

Coraciiformes fam, gen et sp. indet.

Site and era:
Csarnóta 2 (Hungary), Pliocene (MN15)

Material: proximal and distal fragment of humerus; distal fragment of tibiotarsus

Dimensions (in mm): humerus: C-5.18; E-1.77 and 1.80; F-3.20; tibiotarsus: E-1.94, F-3.23, G-2.95

Because of their conservation status, only their membership of the order can be established. The distal fragment of humerus is a bone from a species with typical Coraciiform features, but differing in both size and morphology from species of known European families.

Order Passeriformes (Linnaeus, 1758)
Family Corvidae (Vigors, 1825)
Garrulus (Vieillot, 1816)
Garrulus sp.

Site and era:
Beremend 26 (Hungary), Pliocene (MN15)

Material: damaged distal fragment of coracoideum, distal fragment of tibiotarsus

Dimensions (in mm): coracoideum: B-about 28.08, C-5.50, E-1.75; tibiotarsus: E-5.48, F-5.40, G-5.06

The extant species of jay (Garrulus glandarius (L. 1758)) and the earliest record of the genus is from the Late Pliocene of France (Mountoussé) (Clot et al. 1976a, 1976b). It is much younger than the Beremend find. The other dates are from the Pleistocene (UK, Austria, Czech Republic, Croatia, Romania, Germany, etc.) (Tyrberg 1998, Mlíkovskỳ 2002, Kessler 2013b, 2020).

Nucifraga (Vieillot, 1816)
Nucifraga sp.

Site and era:
Beremend 26 (Hungary), Pliocene (MN15)

Material: distal fragment of humerus

Dimensions (in mm): F-9.06, G-4.34

The earliest European records of the modern species (Nucifraga caryocatactes (L. 1758)) is from the Late Pliocene of Bulgaria (Varshets) and of Spain (S’Onix in Mallorca) and from the Early Pleistocene of Czech Republic (Stránská skála) (Soondar et al. 1995, Mlíkovskỳ 1995, Boev 2000, Kessler 2020).

Fred
 

Fred Ruhe

Well-known member
Netherlands
Family Alaudidae (Vigors, 1825)
Alaudidae gen. et sp. indet.

Site and era:
Csarnóta 2 (Hungary), Pliocene (MN15)

Material: proximal fragment of coracoidum; 5 distal fragment of ulna; 2 distal fragment of tibiotarsus; distal fragment of tarsometatarsus.

Dimensions (in mm): coracoideum: C-2,50, D-2.50, E-2.00; ulna: E-1.40–2.00, F-2.20 and 3.50; tibiotarsus: E-1.70–1.90; tarsometatarsus: E-1.70, F-2.10

The family is very well represented by fossil species in the Neogene and Quaternary of the Carpathian Basin: Galerida cserhatensis Kessler et Hír, 2012 (Litke, MN5); Praealauda hevesensis Kessler et Hír, 2012 (Felsőtárkány, MN7–8); Lullula neogradensis Kessler et Hír, 2012 (Mátraszőlős 1, MN7–8); Alauda tivadari Kessler, 2013; Lullula minor Kessler, 2013; Calandrella gali Kessler, 2013 (Polgárdi, MN13); Lullula parva Kessler, 2013; Galerida
pannonica
Kessler, 2013 (Csarnóta 2, MN15); Lullula minuscula Kessler, 2013; Lullula parva Kessler, 2013; Galerida pannonica Kessler, 2013; Melanocorypha minor Kessler, 2013 (Beremend 26, MN15, Kessler 2020).
From areas outside the Carpathian Basin: the Galerida genus was reported outside the Carpathian Basin from the Upper Pliocene of Bulgaria (Varshets, MN17) as Galerida bulgarica Boev, 2012 (Boev 2012), the Melanocorypha genus was reported from the Upper Miocene and Upper Pliocene of Bulgaria: Melanocorypha serdicensis Boev, 2012 (Hrabarsko) and Melanocorypha donchevi Boev, 2012 (Varshets) (Boev 2012), the Alauda genus was reported from the Upper Pliocene of Bulgaria (Varshets, MN17) as Alauda xerarvensis Boev, 2012 (Boev 1996, 2012), the Lululla genus was reported from the Late Miocene of Bulgaria (Chrabarsko) as Lullula sp. (Boev 2000), and from the Late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene as Lullula slivnicensis Boev, 2012 (Slivnica, MN17) and L. balcanica Boev, 2012 (Varshets, MN18) based on other skeletal types (Boev 1996, 2012), the Eremophila genus was reported from the Late Miocene of Bulgaria Chrabarsko as Lullula sp. (Boev 2000), and from the Late Pliocene – Early Pleistocene as Lullula slivnicensis Boev, 2012 (Slivnica, MN17) and L. balcanica Boev, 2012 (Varshets, MN18) based on other skeletal types (Boev 1996, 2012). Several Pliocene finds are reported as extant species from
the Czech Republic, France, Spain and Russia (Kessler 2020).

Family Hirundinidae (Vigors, 1825)
Hirundinidae gen. et sp. indet.

Site and era:
MN15: Csarnóta 2 (Hungary)

Material: distal, fragment of ulna; proximal fragment of carpometacarpus; phalanx ungualis

Dimensions (in mm): ulna: E-2.06, F-3.36, G-2.56; carpometacarpus: C-4.32; phalanx ungualis: A-3.44

The earliest described representatives of this family from the Carpathian Basin are from the late Miocene of Polgárdi (MN13): Hirundo gracilis Kessler, 2013; Delichon polgardiensis Kessler, 2013; Riparia minor Kessler, 2013; and from the Pliocene of Csarnóta 2: Hirundo major Kessler, 2013; Delichon pusillus Kessler, 2013; and from Beremend 26; Delichon major Kessler, 2013 (Kessler 2020). From the area outside the Carpathian Basin they are known only from the Early Pleistocene through modern species.

Family Panuridae (Des Murs, 1860)
Panuridae gen. et sp. indet.

Site and era:
MN15: Csarnóta 2 (Hungary)

Material: distal fragment of ulna

Dimension (in mm): F-3.41

It is the only fossil representative of the family in Europe. Modern species from European sites outside the Carpathian Basin have been reported from the Late Pleistocene of Germany (Scythenloch-Bayern) (Tyrberg 1998).

Family Paridae (Vogors, 1825)
Paridae gen. et sp. indet.

Site and era: MN15:
Csarnóta 2 (Hungary)

Material: distal fragment of ulna

Dimension (in mm): F-2.00

From the Carpathian Basin, the family is earliest known from the Late Miocene of Polgárdi (MN13) as Aegithalos gaspariki Kessler, 2013; and from the Pliocene (MN15) from Csarnóta 2 as Aegithalos congruis Kessler, 2013; Parus robustus Kessler, 2013; and Parus parvulus Kessler, 2013; and from Beremend 26 as Parus medius Kessler, 2013 (Kessler 2020).
The family is known outside the Carpathian Basin only from the Late Pliocene of Bulgaria (Varshets, MN17) as Parus sp. (Boev 2000, Kessler 2020).

Family Sittidae (Bonaparte, 1831)
Sittidae gen. et sp. indet.

Site and era:
MN15: Csarnóta 2 (Hungary)

Material: damaged distal of humerus

Dimensions (in mm): A-ap.19.30, C-4.08, E-1.35

From the Carpathian Basin, the representative of the family is known only from the Late Miocene of Polgárdi (MN13), as Sitta gracilis Kessler, 2013; then from the Pliocene of Csarnóta 2 (MN15) as Sitta pusilla Kessler, 2013; and the modern species from several Pleistocene sites (Kessler 2020). The family is known outside the Carpathian Basin only from the Early Pliocene (MN16) of Poland (Rebielice Królowskie I.) as Sitta sp. (Jánossy 1974) and from the Late Pliocene of Bulgaria (Varshets, MN17) (Boev 1996, 2000, Kessler 2020), and the modern species as Sitta europaea from the Pleistocene.

Family Certhiidae (Vigors, 1825)
Certhiidae gen. et sp. indet.

Site and era:
MN15: Csarnóta 2 (Hungary)

Material: distal fragment of tarsometatarsus

Dimensions (in mm): E-1.00, F-1.70

On the distal epiphysis of the third finger trochlea (trochlea metatarsi III) of the snout is uniquely deep, which is unique to this genus. The genus and the family are known from the late Miocene in the Carpathian Basin, from
which Certhia janossyi Kessler et Hír, 2012 was described from Rudabánya (MN9), while Certhia immensa Kessler, 2012 was described from Pliocene of Csarnóta 2 (Kessler 2020). The modern species is reported from the Pleistocene in Europe.

Fred
 

Fred Ruhe

Well-known member
Netherlands
Family Muscicapidae (Vigors, 1825)
Muscicapidae gen. et sp. indet.

Site and era:
MN15: Csarnóta 2 (Hungary)

Material: proximal fragment of coracoideum, distal fragment of humerus, distal fragment of ulna, distal fragment of tarsometatarsus, 4 phalanx ungualis

Dimensions (in mm): coracoideum: C-2.40, D-2.00, E-0.80; humerus: E-1.30, F-3.80; ulna: F-3.21; tarsometatarsus: E-1.20, F-2.50; phalanx ungualis: A-4.25 and 5.28

Their earliest representatives are known from the Early Miocene from sites in the Carpathian Basin. Thus, the Luscinia praeluscinia Kessler et Hír, 2012 (Litke, MN5), Luscinia jurcsaki Kessler et Venczel, 2011 (Kőalja/Subpiatra, Romania, MN6), Muscicapa leganyii Kessler et Hír, 2012 (Felsőtárkány, Felnémet, MN7–8), Erithacus horusitskyi Kessler et Hír, 2012 (Mátraszőlős 1, MN7–8), then a Muscicapa miklosi Kessler, 2013; Luscinia denesi Kessler, 2013; Saxicola lambrechti Kessler, 2013; Oenanthe kormosi Kessler, 2013 (Polgárdi, MN13), Muscicapa petényii Kessler, 2013; Erithacus minor Kessler, 2013; Luscinia pliocaenica Kessler, 2013; Saxicola magna Kessler, 2013;
Monticola pongraczi Kessler, 2013; Phoenicurus baranensis Kessler, 2013 (Beremend 26, MN15); Saxicola baranensis Kessler, 2013; S. parva Kessler, 2013; Phoenicurus erikai Kessler, 2013; Oenanthe pongraczi Kessler, 2013 (Csarnóta 2, MN15) (Kessler, 2020).
The fossil representatives of the family are not known outside the Carpathian Basin. The modern species in Europa is known only from Early Pleistocene (Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain (Tyrberg 1998)).

Family Turdidae (Rafinesque, 1815)
Turdidae gen. et sp. indet.

Site and era:
MN15: Beremend 26, Csarnóta 2 (Hungary)

Material: Beremend: distal fragment of humerus; distal fragment of tibiotarsus; Csarnóta: distal fragment of tibiotarsus; 3 phalanx ungualis

Dimensions (in mm): Beremend: humerus: F-6.40, G-2.66; tibiotarsus: E-1.96, F-4.05, G-3.86; Csarnóta 2: tibiotarsus: E-1.67, F-3.57, G-3.48; phalanx ungualis: A-6.10 and 7.60, C-3.15 and 3.54.

The earliest Carpathian Basin thrush finds date from the Middle Miocene, such as the: Turdicus matraensis Kessler et Hír, 2012 (Mátraszőlős 3, MN7–8), then a Turdicus pannonicus Kessler, 2013; Turdus miocaenicus Kessler, 2013 (Polgárdi, MN13); Turdus major Kessler, 2013; T. medius Kessler, 2013; T. praeminor Kessler, 2019 (Csarnóta, MN15), Turdicus tenuis Kretzoi, 1962 (Betfia-Romania, Early Pleistocene) (Kessler 2020).
The family is known outside of the Carpathian Basin from the Middle Miocene of Romania (Credinta, MN8) as Turdus sp. (Gál & Kessler 2006), while from the Late Pliocene from of Poland (Rebielice Królowskie I.), (Jánossy 1974), Bulgaria (Varshets), (Boev 1996, 2000), Croatia (Sandalja I.) (V. Malez-Bacic 1979, Kessler 2020).

Family Sylviidae (Vigors, 1825)
Sylviidae gen. et sp. indet.

Site and era:
MN15: Beremend 26 (Hungary).

Material: Beremend 26: damaged distal fragment of humerus; Csarnóta 2: distal fragment of ulna

Dimensions (in mm): Beremend: humerus: A-ap. 15.20, E-1.62, F-3.81, G-1.78 and F-3.15, G-1.72; Csarnóta 2: ulna: E-2.06, F-3.36, G-2.56

The family is richly represented by fossil finds in the Neogene of the Carpathian Basin. Earliest reports are: Sylvia sp. (Kőalja/Subpiatra, Romania, MN6), Phylloscopus miocaenicus Kessler et Hír, 2012 (Felsőtárkány, MN7–8), Acrocephalus major Kessler, 2013; Acrocephalus minor Kessler, 2013; Cettia janossyi Kessler, 2013; Hippolais veterior Kessler, 2013; Sylvia intermedia Kessler, 2013; Locustella kordosi Kessler, 2013; Phylloscopus venczeli Kessler, 2013 (Polgárdi, MN13); Acrocephalus kretzoii Kessler, 2013; Acrocephalus kordosi Kessler, 2013; Cettia kalmani Kessler, 2013; Sylvia pusilla Kessler, 2013; Locustella janossyi Kessler, 2013; Phylloscopus pliocaenicus Kessler, 2013 (Csarnóta 2, MN15); Sylvia pusilla Kessler, 2013; Locustella janossyi Kessler, 2013; Locustella magna Kessler, 2013; Regulus plioceanicus Kessler, 2013 (Beremend 26, MN15) (Kessler 2020).
Outside of Carpathian Basin the family is known from the Late Pliocene from Bulgaria (Varshets, MN17) as Phylloscopus sp. (Boev 1996, 2000); and as Regulus bulgaricus Boev, 1999 (Boev 1999). The modern species is known in Europa from Early Pleistocene (Kessler 2020).

Family Motacillidae (Vigors, 1825)
Motacillidae gen. et sp. indet.

Site and era:
MN15: Csarnóta 2 (Hungary).

Material: 2 proximal and distal fragment of humerus, proximal fragment of carpometacarpus, phalanx ungualis

Dimensions (in mm): humerus: C-5.48, E-2.00, and E-2.14, F-5.47, G-2.48; carpometacarpus: C-3.75, E1-1.75; phalanx ungualis: A-4.64, C-2.24

The earliest presence of species of the family in the Carpathian Basin is known from the Middle Miocene, as: Anthus antecedens Kessler et Hír, 2012 (Felsőtárkány, MN7–8); then as: Anthus hiri Kessler, 2013; Motacilla intermedia Kessler, 2013; (Polgárdi, MN13), Anthus baranensis Kessler, 2013 (Csarnóta 2, MN15); Motacilla minor Kessler, 2013; M. robusta Kessler, 2013a, 2013b (Beremend 26, MN15) (Kessler 2020).
Outside the Carpathian Basin, the Anthus genus is known from the Upper Pliocene of Poland (Rebielice Królowskie 1, MN16) (Jánossy 1974); Bulgaria (Varshets, MN16, MN17) (Boev 1996, 2000); and the Motacilla genus was described from the Upper Pliocene of Bulgaria (Varshets, MN17) by Boev (1996, 2000, Kessler 2020).

Family Prunellidae (Richmond, 1907)
Prunellidae gen. et sp. indet.

Site and era:
MN15: Csarnóta 2 (Hungary).

Material: phalanx ungualis

Dimension (in mm): A-4.60

Prunella freudenthali Kessler, 2013 is known from the late Miocene of Polgárdi (MN13); while Prunella kormosi Kessler, 2013 is known from the Pliocene of Csarnóta 2 (MN15).
The genus is not known outside the Carpathian Basin with fossil species (Kessler 2020).


Fred
 

Fred Ruhe

Well-known member
Netherlands
Family Laniidae (Swainson, 1834)
Laniidae gen. et sp. indet.

Site and era:
MN15: Csarnóta 2 (Hungary).

Material: distal fragment of humerus, phalanx ungualis

Dimensions (in mm): humerus: F-4.00; phalanx ungualis: A-5.24, C-1.64

The earliest Carpathian Basin record of the family is from the Early Miocene as Lanius sp. (Kőalja/Subpiatra, Romania, MN6), then from the Middle Miocene as Lanius schreteri Kessler et Hír, 2012 (Felsőtárkány, MN7–8), from the Late Miocene as Lanius capeki Kessler, 2013 (Polgárdi, MN13), from the Pliocene as Lanius hungaricus Kessler, 2013 (Csarnóta 2, MN15); Lanius major Kessler, 2013; L. intermedius Kessler, 2013 (Beremend
26, MN15); (Kessler 2020).
The family and genus are known outside the Carpathian Basin only from the Late Pliocene of Bulgaria (Varshets, MN17) as Lanius sp. (Boev 1996, 2000, Kessler 2020).

Family Sturnidae (Vigors, 1825)
Sturnidae gen. et sp. indet.

Site and era: MN15: Csarnóta 2 (Hungary).

Material: phalanx ungualis

Dimensions (in mm): A-8.27, C-3.47

The family appears first in the Early Miocene in the Carpathian Basin: Sturnus kretzoii Kessler et Hír, 2012 (Rudabánya, MN9), then in the Late Miocene: Sturnus brevis Kessler, 2013 (Polgárdi, MN13), and in the Pliocene: Sturnus pliocaenicus Kessler, 2013; Sturnus baranensis Kessler, 2013 (Beremend 26, MN15) (Kessler 2020).
The family and genus were described outside the Carpathian Basin as Sturnus sp. from the Late-Pliocene and the Early-Pleistocene localities of Bulgaria (Varshets, MN17–MQ1) by Boev (1996, 2000), England (West Runton and Boxgrove, Harrison 1979, Harrison & Stewart 1999) and Czech Republic (Prezletice, Čapek 1917, Jánossy 1983, 1992, Kessler 2020).

Family Fringillidae (Leach, 1820)
Fringillidae gen. et sp. indet.

Site and era:
MN15: Csarnóta 2 (Hungary)

Material: 2 proximal fragment of coracoideum; phalanx ungualis

Dimensions (in mm): coracoideum: C-3.10 and 3.50, D-2.70–2.80, E-1.20; phalanx ungualis: A-4.59, C-2.80

The family is very well represented by fossil remains in the Carpathian Basin. From the earliest Miocene as: Carduelis kretzoii Kessler, 2013; C. lambrechti Kessler, 2013; Pyrrhula gali Kessler, 2013; Fringilla kormosi Kessler, 2013 (Polgárdi, MN13); Carduelis parvulus Kessler, 2013; C. medius Kessler, 2013; Pinicola kubinyii Kessler, 2013; Pyrrhula minor Kessler, 2013; Fringilla petenyii Kessler, 2013; Loxia csarnotanus Kessler, 2013 (Csarnóta 2, MN15); Coccothraustes major Kessler, 2013; Loxia csarnotanus Kessler, 2013
(Beremend 26, MN15) (Kessler 2020).
The family was described outside of the Carpathian Basin from the Late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene of Bulgaria (Varshets and Cerzenica, MN17–MQ1) by Boev (1996, 2000), Spain (Quibas and S’Onix) by Montoya (1999) and Sondaar et al. (1995); France (Mas Ramboult), by Mourer-Chauviré (1995) and Czech Republic (Stránská skála) by Jánossy (1972). The Coccothraustes genus was reported with extinct species only from
the Upper Pliocene-Early Pleistocene of Bulgaria (Varshets and Slivnita, MN17–Q1) as Coccothraustes simeonovi Boev 1998 and C. balcanicus Boev, 1998 (Boev 1998). The Fringilla genus is known outside of the Carpathian Basin from the Lower Pliocene of Spain (Hostalets de Pierola, MN16) as Fringilla sp. (Villalta 1963), from the Late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene of Bulgaria (Varshets, MN17–MQ1), (Boev 1996); Spain (S’Onix-Mallorca) (Sondaar et al. 1995) and Ukraine (Tarchankut) (Vojinstvens’kyj 1967) as F. cf. coelebs Linnaeus, 1758. (Kessler 2020).

Fred
 

l_raty

laurent raty
Pliogallus as introduced by Gaillard 1939 is problematic, because it originally included two species (P. crassipes, P. kormisi), neither of which was designated as the type.
(On pp. 76, 81 and 93 of the OD, Pliogallus crassipes was flagged “n. g. n. sp.”, while P. kormosi was merely flagged “n. sp.”; in the absence of an explicit statement, this type pf treatment, for genus-group names published before 1931, is deemed to act as a type designation of the species flagged "n.g. n. sp." under ICZN 68.2.1. But this does not apply to a name published in 1939.)
A genus-group name introduced after 1931 must have its type fixed in the OD to be available (ICZN 13.3); short of this, the name is a nomen nudum (in the sense of the ICZN Glossary -- "nomen nudum (pl. nomina nuda), n. A Latin term referring to a name that, if published before 1931, fails to conform to Article 12; or, if published after 1930, fails to conform to Article 13.").

Furthermore : the publication of Pliogallus Gaillard 1939 was almost immediately followed by that of Pliogallus Tugarinov 1940*. Thus, even if Gaillard's Pliogallus proved to be available from a later (but pre-2000) work in which its type would be fixed, the name as taken from this source would certainly be preoccupied by Tugarinov's Pliogallus, and could therefore not used as a valid name.

Additionally : Pliogallus Tugarinov 1940 has since been replaced by Plioperdix Kretzoi 1955**, due to it being perceived as preoccupied by Pliogallus Gaillard 1939, and Plioperdix is in use for the birds described by Tugarinov. This replacement was unnecessary if Gaillard's name was not available.

*) Tugarinov AYa [Тугаринов АЯ]. New findings of Pliocene ornithofauna at Odessa. [Новые находки плиоценовой орнитофауны Одессы.] C.-R. Acad. Sci. URSS [Докл. АН СССР], 26: 304-306 [English], 311-313 [Russian].
Snippets of the English text: Comptes Rendus (Doklady) de L'Académie Des Sciences de L'URSS.
Type Pliogallus coturnoides Tugarinov 1940 (now regarded a syn. of Ammoperdix ponticus Tugarinov 1940) by monotypy.

**) Kretzoi M. 1955. Pliogallus Gaillard 1939 és Pliogallus Tugarinov 1940. Pliogallus Gaillard 1939 and Pliogallus Tugarinov 1940. Aquila, 59-62: 367.
Full text: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/28770042
 

Fred Ruhe

Well-known member
Netherlands
I fully agree with Laurent.

Another problem I have with Pliogallus csarnotanus Kessler et Horváth, 2022 is the fact that the material of Pliogallus crassipes Gaillard, 1939 and Pliogallus kormosi Gaillard, 1939 are tarsometatarsi and the material of Pliogallus csarnotanus Kessler et Horváth, 2022 is a carpometacarpus, so it is not possible to compare them.

Fred
 
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