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Upper Pliocene Larks from Central Asia (1 Viewer)

Fred Ruhe

Well-known member
Netherlands
ПАЛАСТРОВА Е. С.1, ЗЕЛЕНКОВ Н. В., 2020

ИСКОПАЕМЫЙ ВИД EREMOPHILA И ДРУГИЕ ЖАВОРОНКИ (AVES, ALAUDIDAE) ИЗ ВЕРХНЕГО ПЛИОЦЕНА ДОЛИНЫ РЕКИ СЕЛЕНГА (ЦЕНТРАЛЬНАЯ АЗИЯ)

АННОТАЦИЯ: https://www.elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=42445802

Описаны костные остатки жаворонковых (Alaudidae) из верхнего плиоцена местонахождений Береговая (Южное Забайкалье) и Шамар (Северная Монголия). В этих местонахождениях установлено присутствие четырех вымерших форм, среди которых выявлен новый вид рогатых жаворонков – Eremophila orkhonensis (Zelenkov et Kurochkin, 2012), comb. nov. Это древнейшая находка Eremophila в палеонтологической летописи, что свидетельствует в пользу центральноазиатского происхождении рода. Два других жаворонка – Alaudala aff. A. rufescens и Calandrella aff. C. brachydactyla – представляют собой вымершие формы, родственные современным видам. В работе подробно описывается остеология жаворонковых и приводится ее сравнение с другими воробьиными близкого размерного класса. Обсуждается эволюционная история Eremophila, рассматриваются экологические предпочтения найденных жаворонковых и их связь с позднеплиоценовыми ландшафтами Центральной Азии.

E. S. Palastrova & Nikita V. Zelenkov, 2020

A Fossil Species of Eremophila and Other Larks (Aves, Alaudidae)from the Upper Pliocene of Selenga River Valley (Central Asia)

Paleontological Journal. 54 (2).

Abstract: https://www.elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=42445802

Bone remains of larks (Alaudidae) from the Upper Pliocene of the Beregovaya (southern Transbaikalia) and Shaamar (northern Mongolia) localities are described. The presence of 4 extinct forms in these localities is established, including the fossil horned lark Eremophila orkhonensis (Zelenkov et Kurochkin, 2012), comb. nov. This is the oldest member of Eremophila in the fossil record, indicating a possible Central Asian origin of the genus. Two other larks—Alaudala aff. A. rufescens and Calandrella aff. C. brachydactyla also probably represent extinct forms. The paper describes in detail the osteology of larks and compares it with other passerines of similar size class. The evolutionary history of Eremophila is discussed, and the environmental preferences of larks and their connection with the Late Pliocene landscapes of Central Asia are considered.

Enjoy,

Fred
 

Fred Ruhe

Well-known member
Netherlands
Eremophila orkhonensis (Zelenkov et Kurochkin, 2012), comb. nov.

This paper is now published in English:

E. S. Palastrova & Nikita V. Zelenkov, 2020

A Fossil Species of Eremophila and Other Larks (Aves, Alaudidae) from the Upper Pliocene of Selenga River Valley (Central Asia)

Paleontological Journal. 54 (2): 187–204.

SYSTEMATIC PALEONTOLOGY

Order Passeriformes
Family Alaudidae Vigors, 1825
Genus Eremophila Boie, 1828

Typespecies. Alauda alpestris Linnaeus, 1758.
Diagnosis. Modern genus.
Species composition. Two modern species and the fossil E. orkhonensis (Zelenkov et Kurochkin, 2012) from the Pliocene of Mongolia and Transbaikalia.
Comparison. The lower mandible in members of the horned larks genus Eremophila can be distinguished by the angle of ramus divergence. In Eremophila, this angle is greater than in Mirafra, Lullula, and Galerida, and less than in Alaudala. The mandibular symphysis is shorter in Eremophila than in Mirafra, Galerida, Alauda and Melanocorypha, longer, than in Calandrella, more robust, than in Lullula.

Eremophila orkhonensis (Zelenkov et Kurochkin, 2012), comb. nov.
Pliocalcarius orkhonensis: Zelenkov and Kurochkin, 2012, p. 331, text-fig. 3: 33, 34; 6; Zelenkov and Kurochkin, 2015, p. 257, text-fig. 89, pl. XXVII, figs. 33, 34.

Holotype. PIN 3381/486, left coracoid; Northern Mongolia, Shaamar locality, upper Pliocene.

Remarks. Pliocalcarius orkhonensis was described from mixed material belonging to buntings and larks. Furthermore, the holotype (the coracoid) was found to be significantly different from modern buntings (Zelenkov and Kurochkin, 2012). In fact, the holotype has the typical morphology of Eremophila.

Fred

Fig. 1. Lower mandibles, scapulae, and coracoid of Alaudidae: (a), (g), (o), (w) Calandrella brachydactyla, modern; (b), (h), (p), (x) Alaudala rufescens, modern; (c), (i), (q), (y) Eremophila alpestris, modern; (d), (k), (s), (bb) Eremophila orkhonensis, upper Pliocene of northern Mongolia (PIN 2614/250) and Transbaikalia (PIN 2614/236, 237): (d) PIN 2614/236, (k), (s) PIN 2614/250, (bb) PIN 2614/237; (e), (l), (t), (cc) Alauda arvensis, modern; (f), (n), (v), (ee) Galerida cristata, modern; (m), (u), (dd) Ammomanes deserti, modern; (j), (r), (z) Calandrella aff. C. brachydactyla, upper Pliocene of northern Mongolia: (j), (r) PIN 2614/262, (z) PIN 2614/263; (aa) Alaudala aff. A. rufescens, upper Pliocene of Transbaikalia, PIN 2614/254. (a–f) lower mandible, ventral view; (g–n) scapula, dorsal view; (o–v) scapula, lateral view; (w–ee) coracoid, lateral view.
 

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Fred Ruhe

Well-known member
Netherlands
Alaudala aff. A. rufescens.

Alaudala aff. A. rufescens.
Material assigned to this form includes the proximal end of a right (PIN2614/254) and a left (PIN 2614/255) coracoids, the distal (PIN 2614/257) and proximal (PIN 2614/256) ends of left ulnae, the right carpometacarpus (PIN 2975/163) and the distal end of a left tibiotarsus (PIN 2614/258) from the Beregovaya locality. The size of the coracoid (mm): length of the head of the acrocoracoid process 2.7 and 2.8; minimum transverse width of the shaft 1.0; least width of the glenoid labrum 1.1 and 1.2. Ulna: least width of the cotyla dorsalis 1.9; minimum cranial width of the shaft 1.4; least width of the proximal end 3.5; minimum transverse width of the shaft 1.6; least width of the distal end 3. Carpometacarpus: total maximum width 14.9; craniocaudal width of the proximal end 3.7; length of the distal symphysis 1.6. Tibiotarsus: minimum distal transverse width of the shaft 1.4; minimum distal craniocaudal thickness of the shaft 1.2; maximum transverse width of the distal end 2.6.

Fred
 

Fred Ruhe

Well-known member
Netherlands
Calandrella aff. C. brachydactyla

Calandrella aff. C. brachydactyla.
We assign the following material to this form: proximal fragment of right scapula (PIN 2614/262), the proximal fragment of a right coracoid (PIN 2614/263) from the Shaamar locality, as well as proximal fragment of left coracoid (PIN 2614/259) and two proximal fragments of right carpometacarpi without the minor metacarpals (PIN 2614/260, 261) from the Beregovaya locality. Scapula measurements (mm): maximum width of the glenoid articular surface 1.7. Coracoid: length of the head of the acrocoracoid process 2.4 and 2.6; minimum transverse width of the shaft 1.2; minimum anteroposterior width of the shaft 1.4; least width of the glenoid labrum 1.2 (2 specimens). Carpometacarpus: craniocaudal width of the proximal end 3.6 (2 specimens); craniocaudal least width of the major metacarpal 1.3 and 1.4.

Fred
 

Fred Ruhe

Well-known member
Netherlands
Alaudidae indet. (?Calandrella sp.).

Alaudidae indet. (?Calandrella sp.).
Two distal fragments of left metatarsi (PIN 2614/264, 265) (one specimen is missing the trochlea metatarsi IV) from the Beregovaya locality represent yet another lark species, supposedly from the genus Calandrella. The maximum transverse width of the distal end (mm) 2.5; minimum transverse width of the shaft 1.3 and 1.2; minimum anteroposterior width of the shaft 1.0 (2 specimens).

Fred
 

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