- Cygnus atratus
110-142cm (43¼-56 in)
- Mainly black plumage
- White flight feathers of the wing edges
- Bright red bill with a pale bar and tip
- Greyish black legs and feet
Juvenile - Greyish-brown with pale-edged feathers.
Subadult - Similar to adult but with black tips to the white flight feathers.
Any wet area, fresh water and salt water. Swamps and rivers.
They have a vegetarian diet, consisting of the leaves and shoots of a variety of aquatic plants.
Both sexes build the large nest which is a 1meter high mound of reeds, grasses and weeds which may be up to 1.5 metres diameter, in shallow water or on islands. The clutch of 4-8 greenish-white eggs are incubated for about 35-40 days. The young fledge about 6 months later.
- Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2018. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: v2018. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/
- Wikipedia contributors. (2018, October 15). Black swan. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 20:20, November 3, 2018, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Black_swan&oldid=864106999
- Carboneras, C. & Kirwan, G.M. (2017). Black Swan (Cygnus atratus). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from http://www.hbw.com/node/52804 on 10 March 2017).
- Marchant, S. & Higgins, P.J. (coordinating editors) 1990. Handbook of Australian, New Zealand & Antarctic Birds. Volume 1, Ratites to ducks. Melbourne, Oxford University Press.
- Williams, M.J. 2013. Black swan. In Miskelly, C.M. (ed.) New Zealand Birds Online. http://www.nzbirdsonline.org.nz
- BirdForum Opus contributors. (2021) Black Swan. In: BirdForum, the forum for wild birds and birding. Retrieved 27 January 2021 from https://www.birdforum.net/wiki/Black_Swan