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Difference between revisions of "Flappet Lark" - BirdForum Opus

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[[Image:Flappet_Lark.jpg|thumb|400px|right|Photo by {{user|nkgray|nkgray}}<br />Near Kolwezi, [[DRC]], November 2008]]
 
;[[:Category:Mirafra|Mirafra]] rufocinnamomea
 
;[[:Category:Mirafra|Mirafra]] rufocinnamomea
[[Image:Flappet_Lark.jpg|thumb|550px|right|Photo by nkgray<br>Location: near Kolwezi, DRC ]]
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==Identification==
 
==Identification==
 
Length 14-15 cm, mass 21-32 g.
 
Length 14-15 cm, mass 21-32 g.
  
Similar to the [[Rufous-naped Lark]], but smaller and darker with rufous-edged wings. Tail is distinctive and a key identification feature, being narrow, often appearing untidy, and having dark brown central rectrices and rufous outer ones. Display flight is distinctive if witnessed - two to five bursts of wing-clapping (''prrrrt prrrt-rrrt''), sometimes followed by a thin, barely audible whistle, delivered as the bird circles in an undulating flight.
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Similar to the [[Rufous-naped Lark]], but smaller and darker with rufous-edged wings. Tail is distinctive and a key identification feature, being narrow, often appearing untidy, and having dark brown central rectrices and rufous outer ones.  
 
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====Variation====
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Some subspecies are very dark above
 
==Distribution==
 
==Distribution==
Sub-Saharan [[Africa]].
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[[Image:Flappetlark.JPG|thumb|350px|right|Probably subspecies ''torrida''<br />Photo by {{user|nick scarle|nick scarle}}<br />Serengeti NP, [[Tanzania]], November 2017]]
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Sub-Saharan [[Africa]]:<br />
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'''Western Africa''': [[Mauritania]], [[Senegal]], [[The Gambia]], [[Guinea-Bissau]], [[Mali]], [[Liberia]], [[Ivory Coast]], [[Burkina Faso]], [[Ghana]], [[Togo]], [[Benin]], [[Nigeria]], [[Niger]], [[Chad]], [[Cameroon]], [[Central African Republic]], [[Equatorial Guinea]], [[Gabon]], [[Democratic Republic of Congo]], [[Angola]] and [[Zaire]]<br />
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'''Eastern Africa''': [[Sudan]], [[South Sudan]], [[Ethiopia]], [[Somalia]], [[Kenya]], [[Uganda]], [[Rwanda]], [[Burundi]], [[Tanzania]], [[Zambia]], [[Mozambique]] and [[Malawi]]<br />
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'''Southern Africa''': [[Namibia]], [[Botswana]], [[Zimbabwe]], [[South Africa]], [[KwaZulu-Natal]] and [[Swaziland]].
 
==Taxonomy==
 
==Taxonomy==
Considerable geographic variation; 15 subspecies have been described.
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====Subspecies====
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Considerable geographic variation; 15 subspecies have been described<sup>[[#References|[1]]]</sup>:
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*''M. r. buckleyi'': Southern [[Mauritania]] and [[Senegal]] to northern [[Cameroon]]
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*''M. r. serlei'': South-eastern [[Nigeria]]
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*''M. r. tigrina'': Eastern [[Cameroon]] to northern [[Zaire]]
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*''M. r. furensis'': Southwestern [[Sudan]]
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*''M. r. sobatensis'': Northeastern [[South Sudan]]
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*''M. r. torrida'': Southeastern [[Sudan]] and southeastern [[Ethiopia]] south to central [[Uganda]], central [[Kenya]], and central [[Tanzania]]
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*''M. r. rufocinnamomea'': North-western and central Ethiopia
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*''M. r. omoensis'': South-western Ethiopia (Omo to Madji and Baro rivers)
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*''M. r. kawirondensis'': Eastern Zaire to western [[Uganda]] and western [[Kenya]]
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*''M. r. fischeri'': Eastern [[Angola]] to southern [[Somalia]], eastern Kenya, Tanzania and northern [[Mozambique]]
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*''M. r. schoutedeni'': [[Gabon]] to [[Central African Republic]], western Zaire and north-eastern Angola
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*''M. r. lwenarum'': Northern [[Zambia]] (Balovale)
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*''M. r. smithersi'': Zambia to [[Zimbabwe]], north-eastern [[Botswana]] and northern Transvaal
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*''M. r. mababiensis'': Western Zambia to central [[Botswana]]
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*''M. r. pintoi'': Eastern Transvaal to north-eastern Natal, [[Swaziland]] and southern [[Mozambique]]
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==Habitat==
 
==Habitat==
 
Grasslands and grassy openings in woodlands and savanna.
 
Grasslands and grassy openings in woodlands and savanna.
 
==Behaviour==
 
==Behaviour==
Usually solitary or in pairs. Forages on the ground for invertebrates and seeds.
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Usually solitary or in pairs.
 
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====Diet====
'''Breeding''': Monogamous and territorial. The nest is a domed or partly domed structure built of grass on the ground. Two to three eggs are laid (October to April in southern Africa).
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Forages on the ground for invertebrates and seeds.
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====Breeding====
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Monogamous and territorial. The nest is a domed or partly domed structure built of grass on the ground. Two to three eggs are laid (October to April in southern Africa).
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====Action====
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Display flight is distinctive if witnessed - two to five bursts of wing-clapping (''prrrrt prrrt-rrrt''), sometimes followed by a thin, barely audible whistle, delivered as the bird circles in an undulating flight.
 
==References==
 
==References==
Hockey PAR, Dean WRJ & Ryan PG (eds) 2005. ''Robert's Birds of Southern Africa'', 7th edition. John Voelcker Bird Book Fund, Cape Town, South Africa. ISBN 0620340533
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#{{Ref-Clements6thAug17}}#{{Ref-Hockeyetal05}}#[http://www.birdforum.net/showthread.php?p=2821457 Birdforum thread] showing one of the dark forms of Flappet Lark
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{{ref}}
 
==External Links==
 
==External Links==
 
{{GSearch|Mirafra+rufocinnamomea}}
 
{{GSearch|Mirafra+rufocinnamomea}}
 
[[Category:Birds]] [[Category:Mirafra]]
 
[[Category:Birds]] [[Category:Mirafra]]

Latest revision as of 22:52, 9 February 2018

Photo by nkgray
Near Kolwezi, DRC, November 2008
Mirafra rufocinnamomea

Identification

Length 14-15 cm, mass 21-32 g.

Similar to the Rufous-naped Lark, but smaller and darker with rufous-edged wings. Tail is distinctive and a key identification feature, being narrow, often appearing untidy, and having dark brown central rectrices and rufous outer ones.

Variation

Some subspecies are very dark above

Distribution

Probably subspecies torrida
Photo by scarle nick scarle
Serengeti NP, Tanzania, November 2017

Sub-Saharan Africa:
Western Africa: Mauritania, Senegal, The Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Niger, Chad, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Angola and Zaire
Eastern Africa: Sudan, South Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Tanzania, Zambia, Mozambique and Malawi
Southern Africa: Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal and Swaziland.

Taxonomy

Subspecies

Considerable geographic variation; 15 subspecies have been described[1]:

Habitat

Grasslands and grassy openings in woodlands and savanna.

Behaviour

Usually solitary or in pairs.

Diet

Forages on the ground for invertebrates and seeds.

Breeding

Monogamous and territorial. The nest is a domed or partly domed structure built of grass on the ground. Two to three eggs are laid (October to April in southern Africa).

Action

Display flight is distinctive if witnessed - two to five bursts of wing-clapping (prrrrt prrrt-rrrt), sometimes followed by a thin, barely audible whistle, delivered as the bird circles in an undulating flight.

References

  1. Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2017. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: v2017, with updates to August 2017. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/
  2. Hockey, PAR, WRJ Dean, and PG Ryan, eds. 2005. Roberts' Birds of Southern Africa. 7th ed. Cape Town: John Voelcker Bird Book Fund. ISBN 978-0620340533
  3. Birdforum thread showing one of the dark forms of Flappet Lark

Recommended Citation

External Links

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