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Difference between revisions of "Red-winged Francolin" - BirdForum Opus

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;Scleroptila levaillantii
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;[[:Category:Scleroptila|Scleroptila]] levaillantii
 
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[[Image:2007_10_23_10_59_Red-winged_Francolin.jpg|thumb|550px|right|Photo by {{user|Alan+Manson|Alan Manson}}<br />[[Royal Natal National Park]], [[KwaZulu-Natal]], [[South Africa]], October 2007]]
[[Image:2007_10_23_10_59_Red-winged_Francolin.jpg|thumb|550px|right|Photo by Alan Manson<br  
 
/>Midmar Game Reserve, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa]]
 
''Francolinus levaillantii''
 
 
==Identification==
 
==Identification==
Length 33-38 cm, mass 400-460 g; males are larger than females, but otherwise the sexes are similar. Upper parts are mostly brown with black blotches, buffy barring and whitish feather shafts. The throat is white with tawny edges, and a broad black-and-white collar which extends up the sides of the neck to below the eyes.  Another black-and-white stripe extends from the mantle, up the back of the neck, to the sides of the crown.  The remainder of the back of the neck and face are rufous.  The belly is buff, streaked chestnut and the breast is almost solid chestnut.  The large bill is decurved and black with a yellow base.  The eyes are brown and the legs and feet are dull yellow. In flight, the wings are mostly rufous, more so than for the [[Grey-winged Francolin]], [[Shelley's Francolin]], and [[Orange River Francolin]]. The [[Grey-winged Francolin]] has a grey throat without tawny edges, is generally paler, and is less rufous below.  [[Shelley's Francolin]] has a white throat bordered with black, and the lower breast and belly have heavy black markings. The [[Orange River Francolin]] lacks the broad black-and-white collar and the tawny edges to the white throat.
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Length 33-38 cm, mass 400-460 g Males are larger than females, but otherwise the sexes are similar.<br />
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Upper parts are mostly brown with black blotches, buffy barring and whitish feather shafts. The throat is white with tawny edges, and a broad black-and-white collar which extends up the sides of the neck to below the eyes.  Another black-and-white stripe extends from the mantle, up the back of the neck, to the sides of the crown.  The remainder of the back of the neck and face are rufous.  The belly is buff, streaked chestnut and the breast is almost solid chestnut.  The large bill is decurved and black with a yellow base.  The eyes are brown and the legs and feet are dull yellow.<br />
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In flight, the wings are mostly rufous, more so than for the [[Grey-winged Francolin]], [[Shelley's Francolin]], and [[Orange River Francolin]].
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====Similar Species====
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The [[Grey-winged Francolin]] has a grey throat without tawny edges, is generally paler, and is less rufous below.  [[Shelley's Francolin]] has a white throat bordered with black, and the lower breast and belly have heavy black markings. The [[Orange River Francolin]] lacks the broad black-and-white collar and the tawny edges to the white throat.
 
==Distribution==
 
==Distribution==
The distribution is patchy in central, eastern and southern [[Africa]].
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The distribution is patchy in central, eastern and southern [[Africa]].<br />
 
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'''Western Africa''': [[Democratic Republic of Congo]] and [[Angola]]<br />
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'''Eastern Africa''': [[Sudan]], [[Kenya]], [[Uganda]], [[Rwanda]], [[Burundi]], [[Tanzania]], [[Zambia]] and [[Malawi]]<br />
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'''Southern Africa''': [[Zimbabwe]], [[South Africa]], [[KwaZulu-Natal]], [[Lesotho]] and [[Swaziland]].
 
==Taxonomy==
 
==Taxonomy==
There are two subspecies (Hockey ''et al'', 2005): ''S. l. levaillantii'' is the southern race from southern and eastern South Africa, western Swaziland, Malawi, and Zambia (described above).
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====Subspecies====
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There are 2 subspecies<sup>[[#References|[1]]]</sup>:
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*''S. l. kikuyuensis'':
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:*[[Angola]] to eastern [[DR Congo]], west-central [[Kenya]] and [[Zambia]]
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*''S. l. levaillantii'':
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:*[[Malawi]] and north-eastern [[Zambia]] to eastern [[South Africa]]
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Formerly placed in genus ''[[Francolinus]]''.
 
==Habitat==
 
==Habitat==
Grasslands and fynbos, preferring rank vegetation.
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Grasslands, bracken slopes and associated agricultural lands preferring rank vegetation.
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==Behaviour==
 
==Behaviour==
 
Localised and uncommon.  In pairs or small coveys of up to ten birds.  Flushes reluctantly, and will seldom flush more than once, preferring to remain immobile in thick cover.  Food is mainly bulbs and insects.
 
Localised and uncommon.  In pairs or small coveys of up to ten birds.  Flushes reluctantly, and will seldom flush more than once, preferring to remain immobile in thick cover.  Food is mainly bulbs and insects.
 
==References==
 
==References==
Hockey PAR, Dean WRJ & Ryan PG (eds) 2005. ''Robert's Birds of Southern Africa'', 7th edition. Cape Town: John Voelcker Bird Book Fund. ISBN 0620340533
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#{{Ref-Clements6thAug15}}#Avibase
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#Hockey PAR, Dean WRJ & Ryan PG (eds) 2005. ''Robert's Birds of Southern Africa'', 7th edition. Cape Town: John Voelcker Bird Book Fund. ISBN 0620340533
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{{ref}}
 
==External Links==
 
==External Links==
 
{{GSearch|Scleroptila+levaillantii}}
 
{{GSearch|Scleroptila+levaillantii}}
[[Category:Birds]]
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[[Category:Birds]][[Category:Scleroptila]]

Latest revision as of 15:52, 14 August 2015

Scleroptila levaillantii

Identification

Length 33-38 cm, mass 400-460 g Males are larger than females, but otherwise the sexes are similar.
Upper parts are mostly brown with black blotches, buffy barring and whitish feather shafts. The throat is white with tawny edges, and a broad black-and-white collar which extends up the sides of the neck to below the eyes. Another black-and-white stripe extends from the mantle, up the back of the neck, to the sides of the crown. The remainder of the back of the neck and face are rufous. The belly is buff, streaked chestnut and the breast is almost solid chestnut. The large bill is decurved and black with a yellow base. The eyes are brown and the legs and feet are dull yellow.
In flight, the wings are mostly rufous, more so than for the Grey-winged Francolin, Shelley's Francolin, and Orange River Francolin.

Similar Species

The Grey-winged Francolin has a grey throat without tawny edges, is generally paler, and is less rufous below. Shelley's Francolin has a white throat bordered with black, and the lower breast and belly have heavy black markings. The Orange River Francolin lacks the broad black-and-white collar and the tawny edges to the white throat.

Distribution

The distribution is patchy in central, eastern and southern Africa.
Western Africa: Democratic Republic of Congo and Angola
Eastern Africa: Sudan, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Tanzania, Zambia and Malawi
Southern Africa: Zimbabwe, South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho and Swaziland.

Taxonomy

Subspecies

There are 2 subspecies[1]:

  • S. l. kikuyuensis:
  • S. l. levaillantii:

Formerly placed in genus Francolinus.

Habitat

Grasslands, bracken slopes and associated agricultural lands preferring rank vegetation.

Behaviour

Localised and uncommon. In pairs or small coveys of up to ten birds. Flushes reluctantly, and will seldom flush more than once, preferring to remain immobile in thick cover. Food is mainly bulbs and insects.

References

  1. Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2015. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: v2015, with updates to August 2015. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/
  2. Avibase
  3. Hockey PAR, Dean WRJ & Ryan PG (eds) 2005. Robert's Birds of Southern Africa, 7th edition. Cape Town: John Voelcker Bird Book Fund. ISBN 0620340533

Recommended Citation

External Links

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