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Sand Lark - BirdForum Opus

Revision as of 23:38, 21 January 2022 by Deliatodd-18346 (talk | contribs) (→‎External Links: Additional GSearch for common name. Video link deleted as no longer available. GSearch checked template)
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Alternative name: Indian Short-toed Lark

Photo by Seyed Babak Mus
Near the shore in Soorgalm Creek, Iran
Alaudala raytal

Calandrella raytal


Ssp. krishnakumarsinhji
Photo by Alok Tewari
Kathiawar Peninsula, India, Jan-2016

12–13 cm (4¾-5 in)

  • Greyish sandy overall plumage
  • Dark brown streaks
  • White underparts, sparsely and indistinctly dark-streaked on the flanks
  • Greyish-white supercilium
  • White cheeks
  • Long slender bill
  • Shortish tail


Middle East and Asia:
Middle East: occurs only in Iran
Asia: Tibet, Nepal
South Asia: Pakistan, India, Eastern and Western Himalayas
Southeast Asia: Indochina and Myanmar



Photo by Shantilal Varu
Kutch, Gujarat, India, June 2014

There are 3 subecies[1]:

  • A. r. raytal:
  • A. r. krishnakumarsinhji:
  • North West India (Kathiawar Peninsula)
  • A. r. adamsi:
  • Coastal north-western India


Salt pans, river banks, and river islets, sandy coastal areas.


Photo by Shantilal Varu
Bhavnagar, Gujarat, India, April 2014


There is little detail known about their diet, but it is known to consist of seeds, invertebrates and all snails.


Nesting Season: February to May. The nest on the ground forming a cup-shaped depression for the eggs; usually at the base of a shrub. It is lined with grass and hair etc. The clutch consists of two or three eggs which have brown freckles on and yellowis or greyish-white background. They, and the young, are cared for by both adults.


Recording by Alok Tewari
Pong Dam Lake Wildlife and Bird Sanctuary, India, Jan-2011
Call given by the bird circling overhead, recorded while sitting in a boat during bird-census.


  1. Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2016. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: v2016, with updates to August 2016. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/
  2. Avibase
  3. Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive (retrieved August 2016)
  4. Wikipedia

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