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Sombre Greenbul - BirdForum Opus

Revision as of 12:20, 29 June 2018 by Jmorlan (talk | contribs) (→‎References: Added Roberts)
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Subspecies importunus
Photo © by max1
Kirstenbosch Gardens, Cape Town South Africa, 1 October 2017
Andropadus importunus

Identification

Length 15–17·5 cm (6-6¾ in)

Adult subspecies insularis
Photo © by Valéry Schollaert
Mkumbara, Mombo, Tanzania, 23 September 2010

Adult

  • Dull grey olive-green plumage
  • Paler underparts
  • White iris

Sexes are similar

Juvenile

Like adult but brighter yellow below, olive-green wash across breast, richer olive-green above, and have dark eyes.

Similar Species

Northern and eastern races are very yellow below and could be confused with Yellow-bellied Greenbul which differs in its dark red, not white iris.

Distribution

Eastern Africa from Ethiopia to southern South Africa.

Taxonomy

Other former members of this genus have been moved to other genera leaving this species the sole member of Andropadus.

Subspecies

This is a polytypic species with four subspecies:[1]

  • A. i. insularis
  • Southern Somalia to Kenya and northern Tanzania; Manda Island.
  • Slightly smaller than nominate; paler with brownish-olive upperparts, darker tail, pale yellow belly and undertail coverts.
  • A. i. hypoxanthus
  • A. i. oleaginus
  • A. i. importunus
  • North-eastern, south-eastern and southern South Africa
  • Gray underparts and dull olive-green back.

Habitat

Thick coastal bush, evergreen forest and dry shrubland and wooded gardens.

Behaviour

Action

They tend to sit still high in the canopy blending into the vegetation.

Diet

The diet consists mostly of berries and other fruit, with the addition of insects and small snails.

Breeding

Courtship display includes head bobbing, raised head and nape feathers and wing quivering by both partners. Monogamous. Nest built by female is rather flimsy, thin-walled, shallow cup made of dry grass, twigs, rootlets, lichen and lined with finer plant fibers and sometimes hair. Clutch is 1-3 eggs, usually two; incubation by female.

Vocalisation

This species sings loudly and persistently from high in the canopy but can be maddeningly difficult to see. '*Call' a penetrating rising "willie." '*Song' given throughout the year is is a distinctive piercing "weeeweee" followed by a liquid chortle.

Movements

Sedentary. Flocks may wander locally in search of food.

Gallery

Click on photo for larger image

References

  1. Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2017. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: v2017, with updates to August 2017. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/
  2. Fishpool, L. & Tobias, J. (2018). Sombre Greenbul (Andropadus importunus). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from https://www.hbw.com/node/57973 on 25 June 2018).
  3. Hockey, PAR, WRJ Dean, and PG Ryan, eds. 2005. Roberts' Birds of Southern Africa. 7th ed. Cape Town: John Voelcker Bird Book Fund. ISBN 978-0620340533
  4. Sinclair, I., Hockey, P.A.R., and Arlott, N. (2005). The Larger Illustrated Guide to Birds of Southern Africa. Struik, Cape Town. ISBN 978-1775840992
  1. Wikipedia

Recommended Citation

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