Alternative name: Wood Nuthatch
Includes: Siberian Nuthatch
[ edit] Identification
Blue grey upperparts
[ edit] Distribution
Europe and Asia.
Fairly common to locally common in its range.
[ edit] Taxonomy
[ edit] Subspecies
There are 19 subspecies
S. e. caesia: underparts rusty-red, vent dark reddish-brown
Britain to Denmark, Carpathian Mountains, PyrĂ©nĂ©es and Balkan Peninsula
S. e. europaea: Scandinavia and Russia to Volga and Vyatka basins and Ukraine
S. e. asiatica: White supercillium and sometimes a white forehead
Eastern European Russia to Sea of Okhotsk, southern Kuril Island and northern Japan
S. e. arctica: North-central Siberia to Anadyr River (eastern Russia) - sometimes split as Siberian Nuthatch
S. e. hispaniensis: Iberian Peninsula
S. e. atlas: Morocco
S. e. cisalpina: Southern Switzerland, Italy, Sicily and coastal Yugoslavia
S. e. levantina: Western Asia Minor, Levant and southern Turkey (east to Euphrates River)
S. e. caucasica: Northern and north-eastern Turkey, Caucasus region and Transcaucasia
S. e. rubiginosa: South-eastern Transcaucasia (Talyshskiye and Gory mountains) to northern Iran
S. e. persica: Zagros Mountains (south-western Iran)
S. e. seorsa: North-western China (eastern Tien Shan Mountains of northern Xinjiang)
S. e. sakhalinensis: Sakhalin ( Russia)
S. e. albifrons: Kamchatka Peninsula, Paramushir Island and northern Kuril Islands
S. e. amurensis: South-eastern Russia to north-eastern China, Korea and Honshu (northern Japan)
S. e. roseillia: Southern Japan (south-eastern Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu)
, May 2014
S. e. bedfordi: Cheju-Do Islands ( Korea)
S. e. sinensis: Central and eastern China and Taiwan
S. e. nebulosa: Southern China (lowlands of southern Yunnan)
[ edit] Habitat
Breeds in mixed and deciduous woods and parkland.
[ edit] Behaviour
They travel head-first down trees and are often seen on the underside of branches. They also hang upside down in trees.
[ edit] Breeding
It nests in holes, lined with grass and bark, in old trees. The clutch consists of 5-8 white, red speckled eggs.
A monogamous and territorial species. The size of the nest entrance is often reduced by plasterng with mud. Sometimes the interior is also plastered to protect against wind and rain.
The diet includes insects, seeds and nuts. Visits garden feeders in winter. Will store food in the autumn for retrieval in the winter months.
[ edit] Vocalisation
Listen in an external program
[ edit] References
Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, B.L. Sullivan, C. L. Wood, and D. Roberson. 2013. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: Version 6.8., with updates to August 2013. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/
Collins Bird Guide ISBN 0 00 219728 6
[ edit] External Links
This link searches for videos titled Sitta europaea