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American Robin

From Opus

Revision as of 22:49, 25 December 2010 by Deliatodd-18346 (Talk | contribs)
MalePhoto by mmdnjeAtlanta, Georgia, USA, December 2006
Male
Photo by mmdnje
Atlanta, Georgia, USA, December 2006
Turdus migratorius

Contents

Identification

25–28 cm (10–11 in) long. It weighs about 77 g (2.7 oz)

  • Gray upperparts and head
  • Brick-red breast in male, orange in female, with white belly and undertail coverts
  • White eye-ring, interrupted at front and back.

Breeding male: distinctive black head feathers

Distribution

FemalePhoto by GarryKirschQuinte West, Ontario, April 2009
Female
Photo by GarryKirsch
Quinte West, Ontario, April 2009

Bird of North America. Breeds over most of North America, in the east as far as Labrador and Newfoundland.

Northern birds are migratory leaving breeding areas in August-September and eastern birds winter from Newfoundland southwards, returning late March-mid May.

In the Western Palearctic recorded in Iceland (four records) and the British Isles, France and Belgium, Germany, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Czechoslovakia and Austria, also recently in Spain.

Most frequently seen in Britain and Ireland (>30) mostly September-February with occasional records April-June. The records are scattered from Shetland to Scilly but there is a distinct bias towards the Northen Isles and the south-west.

Taxonomy

Subspecies[1]

JuvenilePhoto by KCFoggin Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, USA, August 2007
Juvenile
Photo by KCFoggin
Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, USA, August 2007
  • T. m. nigrideus:
  • T. m. migratorius:
  • T. m. achrusterus:
  • South-central US; winters to south-eastern Mexico
  • T. m. caurinus:
  • T. m. propinquus:
  • T. m. phillipsi:
  • T. m. confinis: Pale gray-brown underparts.

Habitat

Open woodland and clearings in forest, farmland with copses and hedgerows, often in lowlands and frequently near water. In many areas has become an urban bird breeding in town parks and gardens.

Behaviour

Diet

Consists of about 40 percent invertebrates, such as beetle grubs, caterpillars and grasshoppers, and 60 percent wild and cultivated fruits and berries. Frequently seen running across lawns, running and stopping with an stiff erect posture, then stopping to pick up prey, which it locates by sight, not hearing.

Breeding

The female builds the nest and lays three or four blue eggs in the lined cup. The female does most of the incubation and it takes around a month for the chicks to fledge. There is often a second brood, the male caring for the fledglings whilst the female incubates the new clutch.

Bird banders found that only 25% of young robins survive the first year.

References

  1. Clements, JF. 2010. The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World. 6th ed., with updates to December 2010. Ithaca: Cornell Univ. Press. ISBN 978-0801445019. Spreadsheet available at http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/Clements%206.5.xls/view
  2. Robins Nestcam
  3. Shepherd Software
  4. Surfbirds
  5. Absolute Astronomy
  6. Wikipedia

External Links


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