C. a. alpina
summer adult. Bright; short-billed.
, August 2012
[ edit] Identification
Length 17β21 cm (6ΒΎ-8ΒΌ in), wingspan 32β36 cm, weight 33β85 g
Black bill, with de-curved tip; black legs.
Crown and upperparts rufous, streaked darker
Wings: greyish brown, with pale bar and dark tips
White sides to rump and tail
White breast with darker streaks
White undertail coverts
Rufous areas become grey and belly all white
Similar to summer adult above but fringes less rufous; underparts pale buff breast grading to white belly with blackish streaks on breast and flanks
[ edit] Distribution
Breeding birds from northern
Europe and Asia winter in Africa and southeast Asia. Those that have bred in Alaska and the Canadian Arctic move down to the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of North America.
[ edit] Taxonomy
C. a. schinzii
summer adult. Dull; short-billed
, June 2014
Most closely related to the
Purple Sandpiper β Rock Sandpiper species pair, and after them, to Sanderling .
[ edit] Subspecies
C. a. hudsonia
summer adult. Bright; long-billed
On spring passage, Bombay Hook NWR,
, May 2016
Depending on authority, nine
or ten  subspecies are accepted:
North central to northeastern Russia; winters India (included in C. a. alpina by some authorities )
Sea of Okhotsk to Kuril Islands; wintering grounds unknown
Northern Sakhalin; wintering grounds unknown
The subspecies are distinguishable by bill length, and intensity of colour of the summer plumage. Winter and juvenile plumage birds are often not reliably distinguishable to subspecies, with only bill length differing.
[ edit] Habitat
Breeds on low or high ground, in wet short-grass or tundra habitats; on migration (in autumn, adults in late July-August, juveniles in late August-October), found in a variety of marshy or coastal habitats, but most numerous on tidal flats or on banks of seaweed on shallow shores.
Coastal mudflats and beaches.
[ edit] Behaviour
They form huge winter flocks, mainly on tidal mudflats (less often in freshwater), often mixing with
Ringed Plover, Red Knot, and other species.
The diet includes insects, snails and worms.
[ edit] Breeding
They nest in a shallow scrape on the ground lined with vegetation. The 4 eggs are incubated by both adults. The male cares for the young.
[ edit] Vocalisation
Song: a trill.
Flight Call: treep or chreet
Listen in an external program
[ edit] References
Gibson, R., & Baker, A. (2012). Multiple gene sequences resolve phylogenetic relationships in the shorebird suborder Scolopaci (Aves: Charadriiformes). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 64: 66-72.
Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2016. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: v2016, with updates to August 2016. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/
Gill, F and D Donsker (Eds). 2017. IOC World Bird Names (version 7.1). Available at http://www.worldbirdnames.org/.
Collins Pocket Guide to British Birds 1966
Collins Bird Guide ISBN 0 00 219728 6
[ edit] External Links