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Breeds in north Denmark and across virtually the whole of Scandinavia, and from eastern France and the Alps east across Europe to the Urals. Breeds in very small numbers most years in Scotland and has bred elsewhere in Britain including northern and south-eastern England and in Iceland. First recorded breeding for Bulgaria occurred in 1993. There is also a small breeding population in Greenland.
Birds from most of Scandinavia and north and east Russia are migratory, and those from the remainder of range partially migratory. Winter range includes Iceland, British Isles and southern parts of Sweden and Finland south to the Mediterranean from Iberia to Israel Rarely reaches North-West Africa but regular in Nile Delta.
Breeds in open birch, alder or coniferous woodland, often in damp areas and along rivers. Also in more open, moorland-type habitats with stunted trees and rocky outcrops. On passage and in winter on damp and grassy fields interspersed with small woods and hedgerows. In severe weather often attracted to parks and gardens.
Highly gregarious during the winter, forming large mixed flocks of winter thrushes.
Call: loud chack, chack, chack
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