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Almost identical to female House Sparrow and usually impossible to separate
Slightly bigger bill, paler belly and sometimes hint of grey streaking on whiter underparts
Juveniles are similar to females but duller. Italiae (Italian Sparrow) is sometimes considered conspecific with this species. It has the same head pattern but less heavy black streaks on mantle and black only on upper breast.
Breeding season from April to August in the western parts of its range. A colonial breeder, sometimes with several thousand pairs. The nest is a loosely woven spherical structure made of grass and placed in a tree or in lower part of a large nest of a bird of prey, crow, heron or White Stork. Lays 2 - 6 eggs which are incubated for 12 days. The chicks fledge about 14 days old.