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Juvenile and 1st Winter: much yellower supercillium and underparts
 Confusion Species
Widespread and abundant in the northern half of the Region.
Breeds throughout the British Isles, Scandinavia and northern Russia south to central and south-east France, Switzerland and Austria, northern parts of Hungary and Romania and to about 50°N in Ukraine and Russia.
Leaves breeding areas in August-September, passage continuing until October, and winters in sub-Saharan Africa, returning mainly in April. Abundant on passage over most of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa.
Subspecies: Nominate trochilus occurs over much of western Europe
Open deciduous woodland, bushy areas, parks and gardens. Also in mixed forest and young conifer plantations, hedgerows and shelterbelts. On passage occurs in all types of habitat with trees and bushes.
The diet includes small insects and spiders and fruit and berries.
The domed nest has a side entrance and is formed from grass, rotten wood, moss and roots, lined with feathers. It is placed on the ground amongst shrubs or long grass. The clutch consists of 3-9 smooth, glossy white eggs, speckled reddish-brown. The female incubates for around 13 days. Both adults feed the young, which fledge after about 13-16 days.
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