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Double-spurred Francolin - BirdForum Opus

Photo by Steve G
Makasutu, The Gambia
Pternistis bicalcaratus


  • Large and plump
  • Appears brown at a distance
  • White supercilium


Northern Africa: occurs only in Morocco
Western Africa: Mauritania, Senegambia, Senegal, The Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Mali, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Niger, Chad, Cameroon, Central African Republic
African Islands: Gulf of Guinea Islands


Formerly placed in genus Francolinus.


There are 2 subspecies[1]:

  • P. b. ayesha:
  • Western Morocco (Rabat to Essaouira)
  • P. b. bicalcaratus:

Four additional subspecies are not recognised by most authorities, these are adamauae, ogilviegranti, molunduensis and thornei[1].


Favours rough grassland bordering forests, cultivations & scrubby bush.


These birds live in pairs or small coveys preferring to run rather than fly when threatened.


  1. Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2015. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: v2015, with updates to August 2015. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/
  2. Avibase

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