• BirdForum is the net's largest birding community dedicated to wild birds and birding, and is absolutely FREE!

    Register for an account to take part in lively discussions in the forum, post your pictures in the gallery and more.

Difference between revisions of "Flappet Lark" - BirdForum Opus

(id, ref)
(Photo caption. Distribution, Taxonomy. Behaviour & References)
Line 1: Line 1:
 +
[[Image:Flappet_Lark.jpg|thumb|500px|right|Photo by {{user|nkgray|nkgray}}<br />Near Kolwezi, [[DRC]], November 2008]]
 
;[[:Category:Mirafra|Mirafra]] rufocinnamomea
 
;[[:Category:Mirafra|Mirafra]] rufocinnamomea
[[Image:Flappet_Lark.jpg|thumb|550px|right|Photo by nkgray<br>Location: near Kolwezi, DRC ]]
+
 
 
==Identification==
 
==Identification==
 
Length 14-15 cm, mass 21-32 g.
 
Length 14-15 cm, mass 21-32 g.
  
Similar to the [[Rufous-naped Lark]], but smaller and darker with rufous-edged wings. Tail is distinctive and a key identification feature, being narrow, often appearing untidy, and having dark brown central rectrices and rufous outer ones. Display flight is distinctive if witnessed - two to five bursts of wing-clapping (''prrrrt prrrt-rrrt''), sometimes followed by a thin, barely audible whistle, delivered as the bird circles in an undulating flight.
+
Similar to the [[Rufous-naped Lark]], but smaller and darker with rufous-edged wings. Tail is distinctive and a key identification feature, being narrow, often appearing untidy, and having dark brown central rectrices and rufous outer ones.  
 
====Variation====
 
====Variation====
 
Some subspecies are very dark above
 
Some subspecies are very dark above
 
==Distribution==
 
==Distribution==
Sub-Saharan [[Africa]].
+
Sub-Saharan [[Africa]]:<br />
 +
'''Western Africa''': [[Mauritania]], [[Senegal]], [[The Gambia]], [[Guinea-Bissau]], [[Mali]], [[Liberia]], [[Ivory Coast]], [[Burkina Faso]], [[Ghana]], [[Togo]], [[Benin]], [[Nigeria]], [[Niger]], [[Chad]], [[Cameroon]], [[Central African Republic]], [[Equatorial Guinea]], [[Gabon]], [[Democratic Republic of Congo]], [[Angola]] and [[Zaire]]<br />
 +
'''Eastern Africa''': [[Sudan]], [[South Sudan]], [[Ethiopia]], [[Somalia]], [[Kenya]], [[Uganda]], [[Rwanda]], [[Burundi]], [[Tanzania]], [[Zambia]], [[Mozambique]] and [[Malawi]]<br />
 +
'''Southern Africa''': [[Namibia]], [[Botswana]], [[Zimbabwe]], [[South Africa]], [[KwaZulu-Natal]] and [[Swaziland]].
 
==Taxonomy==
 
==Taxonomy==
Considerable geographic variation; 15 subspecies have been described.
+
====Subspecies====
 +
Considerable geographic variation; 15 subspecies have been described<sup>[[#References|[1]]]</sup>:
 +
*''M. r. buckleyi'': Southern [[Mauritania]] and [[Senegal]] to northern [[Cameroon]]
 +
*''M. r. serlei'': South-eastern [[Nigeria]]
 +
*''M. r. tigrina'': Eastern [[Cameroon]] to northern [[Zaire]]
 +
*''M. r. furensis'': West-central [[Sudan]] (western Darfur)
 +
*''M. r. sobatensis'': Central [[Sudan]] (confluence of White Nile and Sobat rivers)
 +
*''M. r. torrida'': South-eastern Sudan to southern [[Ethiopia]], [[Uganda]], central [[Kenya]] and [[Tanzania]]
 +
*''M. r. rufocinnamomea'': North-western and central Ethiopia
 +
*''M. r. omoensis'': South-western Ethiopia (Omo to Madji and Baro rivers)
 +
*''M. r. kawirondensis'': Eastern Zaire to western [[Uganda]] and western [[Kenya]]
 +
*''M. r. fischeri'': Eastern [[Angola]] to southern [[Somalia]], eastern Kenya, Tanzania and northern [[Mozambique]]
 +
*''M. r. schoutedeni'': [[Gabon]] to [[Central African Republic]], western Zaire and north-eastern Angola
 +
*''M. r. lwenarum'': Northern [[Zambia]] (Balovale)
 +
*''M. r. smithersi'': Zambia to [[Zimbabwe]], north-eastern [[Botswana]] and northern Transvaal
 +
*''M. r. mababiensis'': Western Zambia to central [[Botswana]]
 +
*''M. r. pintoi'': Eastern Transvaal to north-eastern Natal, [[Swaziland]] and southern [[Mozambique]]
 +
 
 
==Habitat==
 
==Habitat==
 
Grasslands and grassy openings in woodlands and savanna.
 
Grasslands and grassy openings in woodlands and savanna.
 
==Behaviour==
 
==Behaviour==
Usually solitary or in pairs. Forages on the ground for invertebrates and seeds.
+
Usually solitary or in pairs.
 
+
====Diet====
'''Breeding''': Monogamous and territorial. The nest is a domed or partly domed structure built of grass on the ground. Two to three eggs are laid (October to April in southern Africa).
+
Forages on the ground for invertebrates and seeds.
 +
====Breeding====
 +
Monogamous and territorial. The nest is a domed or partly domed structure built of grass on the ground. Two to three eggs are laid (October to April in southern Africa).
 +
====Action====
 +
Display flight is distinctive if witnessed - two to five bursts of wing-clapping (''prrrrt prrrt-rrrt''), sometimes followed by a thin, barely audible whistle, delivered as the bird circles in an undulating flight.
 
==References==
 
==References==
#Hockey PAR, Dean WRJ & Ryan PG (eds) 2005. ''Robert's Birds of Southern Africa'', 7th edition. John Voelcker Bird Book Fund, Cape Town, South Africa. ISBN 0620340533
+
#{{Ref-Clements6thAug13}}#{{Ref-Hockeyetal05}}#[http://www.birdforum.net/showthread.php?p=2821457 Birdforum thread] showing one of the dark forms of Flappet Lark
#[http://www.birdforum.net/showthread.php?p=2821457 Birdforum thread] showing one of the dark forms of Flappet Lark
+
{{ref}}
 
==External Links==
 
==External Links==
 
{{GSearch|Mirafra+rufocinnamomea}}
 
{{GSearch|Mirafra+rufocinnamomea}}
 
[[Category:Birds]] [[Category:Mirafra]]
 
[[Category:Birds]] [[Category:Mirafra]]

Revision as of 21:29, 13 January 2014

Photo by nkgray
Near Kolwezi, DRC, November 2008
Mirafra rufocinnamomea

Identification

Length 14-15 cm, mass 21-32 g.

Similar to the Rufous-naped Lark, but smaller and darker with rufous-edged wings. Tail is distinctive and a key identification feature, being narrow, often appearing untidy, and having dark brown central rectrices and rufous outer ones.

Variation

Some subspecies are very dark above

Distribution

Sub-Saharan Africa:
Western Africa: Mauritania, Senegal, The Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Niger, Chad, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Angola and Zaire
Eastern Africa: Sudan, South Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Tanzania, Zambia, Mozambique and Malawi
Southern Africa: Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal and Swaziland.

Taxonomy

Subspecies

Considerable geographic variation; 15 subspecies have been described[1]:

  • M. r. buckleyi: Southern Mauritania and Senegal to northern Cameroon
  • M. r. serlei: South-eastern Nigeria
  • M. r. tigrina: Eastern Cameroon to northern Zaire
  • M. r. furensis: West-central Sudan (western Darfur)
  • M. r. sobatensis: Central Sudan (confluence of White Nile and Sobat rivers)
  • M. r. torrida: South-eastern Sudan to southern Ethiopia, Uganda, central Kenya and Tanzania
  • M. r. rufocinnamomea: North-western and central Ethiopia
  • M. r. omoensis: South-western Ethiopia (Omo to Madji and Baro rivers)
  • M. r. kawirondensis: Eastern Zaire to western Uganda and western Kenya
  • M. r. fischeri: Eastern Angola to southern Somalia, eastern Kenya, Tanzania and northern Mozambique
  • M. r. schoutedeni: Gabon to Central African Republic, western Zaire and north-eastern Angola
  • M. r. lwenarum: Northern Zambia (Balovale)
  • M. r. smithersi: Zambia to Zimbabwe, north-eastern Botswana and northern Transvaal
  • M. r. mababiensis: Western Zambia to central Botswana
  • M. r. pintoi: Eastern Transvaal to north-eastern Natal, Swaziland and southern Mozambique

Habitat

Grasslands and grassy openings in woodlands and savanna.

Behaviour

Usually solitary or in pairs.

Diet

Forages on the ground for invertebrates and seeds.

Breeding

Monogamous and territorial. The nest is a domed or partly domed structure built of grass on the ground. Two to three eggs are laid (October to April in southern Africa).

Action

Display flight is distinctive if witnessed - two to five bursts of wing-clapping (prrrrt prrrt-rrrt), sometimes followed by a thin, barely audible whistle, delivered as the bird circles in an undulating flight.

References

  1. Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, B.L. Sullivan, C. L. Wood, and D. Roberson. 2013. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: Version 6.8., with updates to August 2013. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/
  2. Hockey, PAR, WRJ Dean, and PG Ryan, eds. 2005. Roberts' Birds of Southern Africa. 7th ed. Cape Town: John Voelcker Bird Book Fund. ISBN 978-0620340533
  3. Birdforum thread showing one of the dark forms of Flappet Lark

Recommended Citation

External Links

Top