• Welcome to BirdForum, the internet's largest birding community with thousands of members from all over the world. The forums are dedicated to wild birds, birding, binoculars and equipment and all that goes with it.

    Please register for an account to take part in the discussions in the forum, post your pictures in the gallery and more.
ZEISS DTI thermal imaging cameras. For more discoveries at night, and during the day.

Mandarin Duck - BirdForum Opus

Photo © by emerging
Montreal, Canada, 12 April 2021
Aix galericulata


Adult male (right) and female (left)
Photo © by Marc Delsalle
Ieper, Belgium, 7 April 2003

41–51 cm (16-20 in)

  • Broad white band from in front of eye to nape
  • Orange whiskers and 'sails' on back


  • Dull olive-grey overall plumage
  • White spectacles continuing with narrow line towards nape
  • White chin and throat
  • Pale spots on flanks


Adult male in flight
Photo © by regenbogen
Germany, 18 November 2012

An East Asian duck breeding in the far east of Russia, in north-eastern China and Hokkaido. A summer visitor to northern parts of breeding range wintering in southern Japan and eastern China. Has been recorded south to the Ryukyu Islands and Taiwan.

Introduced and now well established in Britain with the main breeding areas are in southern England in Surrey, Berkshire and neighbouring counties but sporadic breeding occurs throughout England and around Perth in Scotland. In addition there are small and scattered breeding populations in Ireland. Has bred or breeds regularly in small numbers in various other European countries including France, Belgium and the Netherlands, Denmark and Norway, Austria, Germany and Switzerland but these populations may not yet be self-supporting. This species is also introduced in California and Utah.

Local escapes or wanderers from England have been seen throughout Europe north to Iceland and south to Spain, also in Morocco.

As the native Asian birds continue to decline through persecution and habitat loss the British population has become increasingly important and there may now be more birds in Britain than in China.


This is a monotypic species[1].


In its homeland a bird of lakes and rivers in forested regions, marshes and more open waters in winter. In Britain it is found on lakes and streams in parkland farmland with nearby deciduous woodland.



Seeds and nuts, especially acorns, sweet chestnut, beech mast, grain and aquatic plants. They also take some snails, frogs and tadpoles.


  1. Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2018. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: v2018. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/
  2. Collins Bird Guide app
  3. Carboneras, C. & Kirwan, G.M. (2019). Mandarin Duck (Aix galericulata). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from https://www.hbw.com/node/52855 on 29 March 2019).

Recommended Citation

External Links

br />

GSearch checked for 2020 platform.1