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Collared Kingfisher

From Opus

Photo © by Romy OconSouth Lagoon, Las Pinas City, Philippines
Photo © by Romy Ocon
South Lagoon, Las Pinas City, Philippines
Todiramphus chloris

Todirhamphus chloris, Halcyon chloris


[edit] Identification

22-29 cm

  • Blue-green upperparts
  • White or buff underparts
  • White neck collar
  • Black eye stripe
  • Black bill
  • Pale yellow lower mandible

Female: more green
Subspecies vary with white or buff eyestripes, white spot between bill and eye.

[edit] Distribution

Locally around the Red Sea, the Arabian Peninsula, India to southeast Asia, Indonesia and the Philippines. Southern Asia and Malaysia.

Subspecies T. c. davisoniPhoto © by drkishoreAndaman Islands, India, 17 January 2019
Subspecies T. c. davisoni
Photo © by drkishore
Andaman Islands, India, 17 January 2019

[edit] Taxonomy

Was previously Halcyon chloris. The Sibley-Monroe spelling of the scientific name (Todirhamphus chloris) is incorrect. Clements and Howard & Moore both use Todiramphus chloris. More details in this discussion.
This is a polytypic species formerly consisting of 50+ subspecies which are now split into six species: Collared Kingfisher, Pacific Kingfisher, Torresian Kingfisher, Mariana Kingfisher, Melanesian Kingfisher and Colonist Kingfisher.

Photo © by Romy OconManila Bay, Philippines, September 2010
Photo © by Romy Ocon
Manila Bay, Philippines, September 2010

[edit] Subspecies

14 subspecies recognized:

  • T. c. abyssinicus: West coast of Red Sea to head of Gulf of Aden
  • T. c. kalbaensis: South coast of Arabian Peninsula to extreme north-western Oman
  • T. c. humii: North-western India to Malay Peninsula, Thailand, Myanmar, Mergui Archaepelago
  • T. c. vidali: Peninsular India (Ratnagiri District)
  • T. c. armstrongi: Southern Thailand and Myanmar
  • T. c. davisoni: Andaman Islands and Cocos Islands (Indian Ocean)
  • T. c. occipitalis: Nicobar Islands
  • T. c. chloropterus: Islands off western Sumatra (except Enggano)
  • T. c. azelus: Enggano Island (off south-western [Sumatra]])
  • T. c. palmeri: Java, Bali and adjacent islands in Java Sea
  • T. c. laubmannianus: Southern Sumatra, Borneo and adjacent islands
  • T. c. collaris: Philippines, Sulu Archipelago and Palawan
  • T. c. chloris: Sulawesi to north-western New Guinea and Lesser Sundas
  • T. c. teraokai: Palau Islands (western Caroline Islands)

[edit] Habitat

Coastal areas, mangrove swamps, farmland, open woodland, grassland and gardens.

[edit] Behaviour

Courting behaviour Photo © by russkieLangkawi, Malaysia
Courting behaviour
Photo © by russkie
Langkawi, Malaysia

[edit] Diet

The diet includes crabs, insects, shrimps, frogs, worms, snails, lizards and small fish.

[edit] Breeding

It nests in holes. The clutch consists of 2-7 round whitish eggs which are incubated by both parents. The young fledge about 44 days after hatching.

[edit] References

  1. Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2015. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: v2015, with updates to August 2015. Downloaded from
  2. Gill, F and D Donsker (Eds). 2015. IOC World Bird Names (version 5.4). Available at
  3. Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive (retrieved October 2015)

[edit] External Links


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