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European Greenfinch - BirdForum Opus

Photo © by silverstreak195
Wallington gardens, Northumberland, 2003
Chloris chloris

Carduelis chloris


Male varies from bright olive green in summer to a greyer shade of green after moult
Female duller and browner above.

Both have brilliant yellow wing panel.


Photo © by postcardcv

Europe, north Africa and south west Asia.

Introduced to New Zealand.



There are 6 subspecies[1]:

  • C. c. chloris:
  • C. c. voousi:
  • C. c. vanmarli:
Photo © by Daniel C. Bradley
Mauerbach, Austria, July 2013
  • C. c. aurantiiventris:
  • C. c. chlorotica:
  • C. c. turkestanica:

A further 4 subspecies, madaraszi, harrisoni, muehlei and bilkevitschi, are not recognised by all authorities[1].

Formerly placed in genus Carduelis.


Woodland edges, farmland hedges and gardens and parks.


Photo © by Joe52
Bournemouth, Hampshire, UK, April 2012

Can be aggressive when competing for food, chasing off other smaller birds.


The diet includes seeds. Regularly visiting garden bird feeders.


April to August. Twigs form the base of the nest, upon which is made a bowl of moss lined with grass, rootlets, feathers and wool and is located in a bush or tree. The clutch consists of 4-5 pale blue eggs with reddish-brown spots. Incubation takes about 2 weeks, the chicks fledging after 13-16 days. There may be up to 3 broods in the season.


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  1. Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, B.L. Sullivan, C. L. Wood, and D. Roberson. 2012. The eBird/Clements Checklist of Birds of the World. 6th ed., with updates to October 2012. Ithaca: Cornell Univ. Press. ISBN 978-0801445019. Spreadsheet available at http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/downloadable-clements-checklist
  2. Bird Watching

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