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34â€“39 cm (13Â½-15Â¼ in)
Sexes similar. Juveniles have a dark iris at first, and a softer, tinged-brownish plumage without gloss.
 Similar species
Immature Daurian Jackdaws look similar to this species, but more solidly black on the head.
Found in most of Europe, patchily in northern Africa, the Middle East and western and central Asia.
Breeds in large holes in trees, or on cliffs, quarries, and buildings, also parks with open woodlands. Winters in open farmland.
They can form large winter roosts, often along with Rooks.
The diet includes insects, amphibians, rodents, seeds, fruits, berries, reptiles, eggs and young birds.
Breeding season starts in late April. Pairs stay together for several years. Usually several pairs are nesting in close proximity on rooftop chimneys, in caves and quarries. The nests are untidy stick structures. They will use long nest boxes. Lays 3-8 (average 4) eggs.
Call: a ringing kyow, also chiak.
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