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Common Kestrel

From Opus

Nominate subspecies, malePhoto © by Annette Cutts  Marshside, UK, September 2007
Nominate subspecies, male
Photo © by Annette Cutts
Marshside, UK, September 2007

Alternative names: Eurasian Kestrel

Falco tinnunculus

Includes Greater Cape Verde Kestrel; Lesser Cape Verde Kestrel

Contents

[edit] Identification

Subspecies F. t. objurgatus, malePhoto © by Alok TewariAmboli, Alt. 22-2500 ft., Western Ghats, Dist. Sindhudurg, Maharashtra, India, 9 February 2019
Subspecies F. t. objurgatus, male
Photo © by Alok Tewari
Amboli, Alt. 22-2500 ft., Western Ghats, Dist. Sindhudurg, Maharashtra, India, 9 February 2019

33–39 cm (13-15½ in), wingspan 65-80 cm (25½-31½ in)

  • Light chestnut, black spotted upperparts
  • Buff, black streaked below
  • Black remiges
  • Black malar stripe
  • Black tipped tail with narrow white rim
  • Bright yellow eye ring, cere and feet
  • Dark iris, bill and talons

Male: fewer black spots and streaks, blue-grey head and tail
Female: brown tail with black bars

[edit] Variations

F.t rupicolaeformis: smaller, darker and more richly-coloured than the nominate
F.t. archeri: is heavily barred
F.t. rufescens: is dark and more chestnut
F.t. canariensis: is small and dark
F.t. dacotiae: pale and heavily-spotted
F.t. neglectus: small and dark
F.t. alexandri: larger and more rufous

[edit] Distribution

Subspecies F. t. objurgatus, femalePhoto © by Alok TewariAmboli, Alt. 22-2500 ft., Western Ghats, Dist. Sindhudurg, Maharashtra, India, 8 February 2019
Subspecies F. t. objurgatus, female
Photo © by Alok Tewari
Amboli, Alt. 22-2500 ft., Western Ghats, Dist. Sindhudurg, Maharashtra, India, 8 February 2019

Europe, Asia and Africa.

By far the most numerous falcon Europe and found from the British Isles and northern Norway south to the Mediterranean and the major Mediterranean islands and from Iberia east to Russia. Also found throughout Turkey and the Middle East, and breeds across Asia to the Pacific coast of the Russian Far East, China, Korea and Japan. In Africa breeds in the north from Morocco to the Nile Valley and south of the Sahara from Senegal east to Ethiopia.

Northernmost populations are migratory, the remainder resident or with the young birds dispersive. Autumn passage extends from August-November and birds return to southern parts of breeding range in February and as late as June in the north. The Common Kestrel is a broad-front migrant but is seen in good numbers along the major migration routes.

Vagrants have been recorded north to Iceland, the Faroes and Svalbard and also south on the Azores. Also recorded in Sumatra and in the Americas in Alaska, Massachusetts, New Jersey and on Martinique.

[edit] Taxonomy

Rock Kestrel was formerly included in this species.

[edit] Subspecies

Nominate subspecies, femalePhoto © by Digiscoper321West Sweden, 4 September 2017
Nominate subspecies, female
Photo © by Digiscoper321
West Sweden, 4 September 2017

About 10 races are recognised[1]:

  • F.t tinnunculus is present in Europe and over most of northern Asia
  • F.t rupicolaeformis in Egypt and the Middle East
  • F. t. interstinctus occurs from the Himalayas to Japan
  • F.t. objurgatus in southern India
  • F.t. archeri is found on Socotra and in Somalia and coastal north Kenya
  • F.t. rufescens in much of mainland Africa
  • F.t. canariensis is found on Madeira and the western Canary Islands
  • F.t. dacotiae in the eastern Canaries
  • F.t. neglectus occurs in the northern Cape Verde Islands
  • F.t. alexandri in South East Cape Verde Islands

[edit] Habitat

Today a familiar bird along motorway verges and on farmland but also found in a wide range of open habitats. Requires trees, rocks or buildings for nesting and open grassland, heathland or cultivation with an abundant supply of voles and other small rodents.

[edit] Behaviour

Nominate subspecies, femalePhoto © by IanF Hartlepool, Cleveland, UK, 13 July 2008
Nominate subspecies, female
Photo © by IanF
Hartlepool, Cleveland, UK, 13 July 2008

[edit] Flight

Direct flight, rarely interspersed with glides, unlike Eurasian Sparrowhawk. Hovers with still head and fanned tail when hunting.

[edit] Diet

The diet includes voles, shrews and mice.

[edit] Breeding

The 3-6 brown spotted eggs are incubated by the female for 4 weeks. The young fledge 4-5 weeks later.

[edit] Vocalisation


Listen in an external program
Recording by Alok Tewari
Bairasiul Power Project, Dist. Chamba, Himachal Pradesh, India, March-2013
Call given by an immature, calling first from a perch, and then on taking off.
Nominate subspecies, juvenilePhoto © by steve.hinchliffeOld Moor, Yorkshire, UK, 18 July 2010
Nominate subspecies, juvenile
Photo © by steve.hinchliffe
Old Moor, Yorkshire, UK, 18 July 2010

[edit] References

  1. Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2018. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: v2018. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/
  2. Svensson, L, K. Mullarney, D. Zetterstrom (1999) Birds of Britain and Europe. Collins Bird Guide ISBN 0 00 219728
  3. Global Raptor Information Network. 2019. Species account: Common Kestrel Falco tinnunculus. Downloaded from http://www.globalraptors.org on 30 Mar. 2019.
  4. Orta, J., Boesman, P. & Marks, J.S. (2019). Common Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from https://www.hbw.com/node/53213 on 30 March 2019).

[edit] Recommended Citation

[edit] External Links


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